Freemasonry: Its Hidden Meaning

By George Steinmetz


"The archetypal image of the wise man, the saviour or redeemer,
lies buried and dormant in man's unconscious since the dawn of
culture; it is awakened whenever the times are out of joint and a
human society is committed to a serious error" *

In the present era, when indeed, "the times are of joint,"
Freemasonry should eagerly embrace the sacred opportunity of
awakening the torpid consciousness of the leaders of the masses to
the real truths of Masonic Wisdom.  This is my prayer and my hope;
and this desire has inspired me to present in this treatise the
illucidation of those Masonic truths as I have been given the light
to see them.

* C. G. Jung Modern Man in Search of a Soul. Harcourt, Brace & Co.


"A younger Brother shall be instructed in working, to prevent
spoiling the material, for want of judgement, and for increasing
and continuing of Brotherly Love."

A good man and true makes known to a friend his desire to become a
Mason.  He is given a petition for the degrees of Masonry, which he
fills out and presents to the Lodge.  It is received; a committee
of investigation is appointed and functions, efficiently or
otherwise, and if elected, the degrees are conferred in due course.
The newly-made Master Mason sits among the brethren, is present at
the conferring of a few degrees, becomes wearied of the same
routine repeated over and over again and soon fails to attend
Lodge, except, perhaps, on some special occasion such as a Past
Master's night, a banquet, or possibly not at all.

Over twenty-five years of experience in Masonry has forced the
conclusion that this lack of interest of Masons in Masonry is
largely due to failure on the part of the Lodge to teach the
science and philosophy of Masonry, especially to the younger
members, at  the time when their curiosity is aroused and their
interest is flaming. Masonry has been defined as a "system of
morals, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols." The ritual
nowhere adequately explains these symbols and allegories, and not
only conceals the true explanations but also often actually
misleads.  To transform rough ashlars into perfect ashlars,
reading, study and instruction are required.  It should not be
forgotten that only stones capable of being fashioned should be
admitted to our Venerable Institution, and that the INTERNAL
QUALIFICATIONS should be carefully scrutinized.

Masters of Lodges, officers and coaches are continually being asked
questions by those of inquiring minds which they are all too often
unable to answer.  The necessary information can be obtained only
from the continual and persistent study of the writings of those
Masonic students who have placed their thoughts and researches upon
the written page, thus conforming to the admonition to the "well
informed brethren" to impart knowledge to the lesser informed.

In this book Brother Steinmetz has created an elementary textbook
and guide for the study and understanding of the esoteric meanings
of Masonry.  He is enanently well qualified to undertake this task,
being well versed in the Mysteries, a student of Hebrew, a clear,
logical thinker, realizing the necessity for continued Masonic
education.  Since it is intended for the use of the beginner rather
than for the advanced Masonic Scholar there are many quotations
from the monitorial work to facilitate its use.  S ome students of
Masonry may not agree entirely with the interpretations herein set
forth.  Even these, however, will benefit as they will need arrive
logically at a better explanation, and in so doing advance

A careful study of this book will implement the student with proper
and plausible explanations of many of the symbols and allegories
contained in the three degrees, and will stimulate him further to
pursue the study of the deeper esoteric meanings of our exceedingly
rich ritual.  It must not be forgotten that although the Grand
Lodge system dates from the year 1717, Masonry or the thing called
"Masonry" has existed from the beginning of man.

This instructive, thought-provoking book should be in the hands of
every English speaking Mason.  The study and possession of the
knowledge contained in it will bring about greater understanding,
fellowship and brotherhood among those who are privileged to be
members of this Honourable Institution.


"Most holy and glorious Lord God, the Great Architect of the
Universe, giver of all good gifts and graces; in Thy name we have
assembled, and in Thy name we desire to proceed in all our doings.
Grant that the sublime principles of Masonry may so subdue every
discordant passion within us, so harmonize and enrich our hearts
with Thine own love and goodness, that the Lodge at this time may
humbly reflect that order and beauty which reign for ever before
Thy throne."

Masonic Manual of Missouri


By Way of Introduction

"Myself when young did eagerly frequent Doctor and Saint, and heard
great argument About it and about: but evermore Came out by the
same door wherein I went."

This quotation from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is "veiled in
allegory," as is Freemasonry, and is an excellent description of my
mental state, when first I started meditating upon the deeper
aspects of life.

The quotation appealed to me, for, as the Poet, I too had eagerly
frequented both "Doctor and Saint." Doctor, learned in things
material; Saint, supposedly learned in spiritual matters.  Like
Khayyam, I "came out by the same door wherein I went" - not
satisfied nor enlightened by the answers given me.

It is inherent in man to seek a religious belief to which he can
subscribe with wholehearted faith.  I was seeking such faith and
was sincere in my desire to find a religious belief.  But intellect
demanded it be consistent with such knowledge as I possessed of
natural history and material science.

In this search I studied every religion with which I came in
contact.  As a singer in various churches, I was afforded
opportunities to hear the creeds of the principal faiths expounded.
I did not exclude Roman Catholicism or Buddhism.  Both contain much
to commend, particularly the latter in its esoteric form.  The
study was far from time wasted.

None of these creeds provided a satisfying meaning of life; the
answer to "WHY AM I HERE?" which, at some time, every individual
asks from the depth of his being.  The answer, to my entire
satisfaction, finally came with a fuller understanding of

Most of the truly great Masonic writers have deplored the lack of
esoteric Masonic knowledge among the craft in general.  Mackey
speaks of the "Parrot Mason," describing him as: "One who commits
to memory questions and answers of the catechetical lectures, and
the formulas of the ritual, but pays no attention to the history
and philosophy of the institution; called a Parrot Mason because he
repeats what he has learned without any conception of its true
meaning." He also ironically describes as "Bright Mason s" those
who are letter-perfect in the ritual and continues: "but the
progress of Masonry as a science now requires something more than a
mere knowledge of the lectures to constitute a Masonic Scholar."

Long ago J. D. Buck stated: "In its ritualism and monitorial
lessons Masonry teaches nothing in morals, in science, in religion,
or in any other department of human knowledge or human interest,
not taught elsewhere in current forms of thought, or by the sages
of the past.  In these directions it has no secrets of any kind.
It is in the ancient symbols of Freemasonry that its real secrets
lie concealed, and these are as densely veiled to the Mason as to
any other, unless he has studied the science of symbol ism in
general, and Masonic symbols in particular. * * * THE MOST PROFOUND

Buck also made the statement, which is as true today as when he
first uttered it, years ago: "There was never a greater need than
at the present time; never so great an opportunity as now for
Masonry to assume its true place among the institutions of man and
force recognition by the simple power of Brotherly Love, Relief,
and Truth, based upon philosophy, as nowhere else exists outside of
its ancient symbols.  If the majority of Masons do not realize the
true significance and value of their possessions ther e is all the
more need for those who do to speak out, in the face of
discouragement and detraction, and do their utmost to demonstrate
the truth."

Albert Pike writes in Morals and Dogma: "A few rudimentary lessons
in architecture; a few universally admitted maxims of morality; a
few unimportant traditions whose real meaning is unknown or
misunderstood, will no longer satisfy the earnest inquirer after
Masonic truth."

In Pike's Legend 4 o  to 14 o Scottish Rite, he states: "In the
United States, the Blue Degrees teach morality only, refuse to
intermeddle with questions political or religious, and require only
a belief in God, and, faintly, in the immortality of the soul;
except so far as they declare the Holy Bible to be the rule and
guide of man's conduct, and the inspired word of God; which, if it
were not evaded in practice, by the admission of Hebrews, would
make the Masonry of the United States a strictly Christian
association.  In the early part of the 18th century, Freemasonry
was, for many of its initiates, the teaching of the Hermetic

In one of his most vehement bursts of sarcasm, of which Pike was a
master when he deemed the occasion demanded, he refers to the Blue
Lodge lectures in these words: "It has been objected to us, that in
our lectures we undervalue that which is absurdly called 'Symbolic
Masonry,' as if any Masonry could be not symbolic. It is quite true
that we should not value it, if we saw nothing in the symbols of
the Blue Lodge beyond the imbecile pretences of interpretation of
them contained in the ordinary sterile instr uction which we owe to
Webb and his predecessors."

There is truth in all these charges. The average Mason is
lamentably ignorant of the real meaning of Masonic Symbology and
knows as little of its esoteric teaching.  On the other hand one
must admit the existence of mitigating circumstances.  This is a
busy world and few are blessed with the time, even though they have
the inclination, to acquire such knowledge.  There is no one source
where a general knowledge may be acquired, as most writers deal
with specific phases of Masonry.  Frankly speaking, Pike, M ackey
and even Waite, are too recondite for the average Mason to gain
much enlightenment from their writing.  Unless he approaches their
work with a considerable background of metaphysical and
philosophical knowledge, they will profit him little.

It is to place as much of this teaching AS IS SEEMINGLY ADVISABLE
in a more accessible form that this book has been undertaken.  The
writer has earnestly endeavoured to write as simply as the
profundity of the subject itself permits.  The reader is asked to
be mindful of the fact that in a work of this nature there is
included the no small handicap of being forced to allude but
vaguely, at times, to those things which cannot be committed to
writing.  I have taken the various printed manuals as my precederic
assuring no objection can be offered for printing herein such
ritual as the Grand Lodges have authorized to be printed in these
manuals.  Where it seems advantageous I have therefore taken the
liberty of quoting freely therefrom.

The only motive for this book is the fulfilment of the writer's
obligations, both moral and Masonic, to assist others to such light
as he has been so generously allowed to attain.  The reader is
asked to approach the subject matter with the words of Herbert
Spencer as his guide: "There is a principle which is a bar against
all information and which cannot fail to keep a man in everlasting
ignorance.  That principle is condemnation before investigation."

When I petitioned the Masonic Order I believed in a Supreme Being,
therefore my application was not a misrepresentation insofar as
claiming a belief in a "one living and true God." My principal
reason for seeking admission was that many of my associates were
members of the Order; observation satisfied me that most of the
better class of business men I contacted were Masons, and my
superior in the organization with which I was connected, and whom I
greatly admitted, was "high in the Order."

These, I confess, are not the most worthy of motives, but are
probably on a level with those of most persons seeking membership
in the Masonic Lodge.

In retrospection I realize that at first I obtained very little
benefit from Freemasonry; nor does one become a swimmer after the
first few times in the water.  It takes constant practice to attain
proficiency in either art.  Later I was requested to organize a
lodge quartet and as a member thereof I was called upon to attend
and assist in initiations.  Hearing the degrees repeatedly
conferred, many of the beautiful phrases of the ritual impressed
themselves on my mind.  It was but natural that I should pon der
over their meaning.

Because of an inquisitive disposition I attained whatever progress
I have made in Masonry.  The first serious thinking I recall
devoting to Masonry was stimulated by the instructions to the
candidate at a certain time to pray for himself, coupled with the
reminder that previously the Lodge had prayed for him.  This
appeared to be significant, as it was the first time the candidate
was not prompted to give a specific reply, or told precisely what
to do.

The obvious answer occurring to one is that if prayer is to be most
effective one should pray for oneself, but that seemed too apparent
and not entirely satisfying.  The answer to this question is the
raison d'etre of Masonry.  However, like all of Masonry's secret
lessons the reason is so concealed that only he who sincerely seeks
will ever discover it.

When the truth of this lesson has been realized one discovers the
most important facts of existence itself; then, too, he learns that
Masonry is religion as well.


Masonry - Religion

"Religion must be as graduated as evolution else it fails in its
object. * * * If a religion does not reach and master the
intelligence, if it does not purify and inspire the emotions, it
has failed in its object, so far as the person addressed is

-Annie Besant

The order has at all times been careful to explain that Masonry is
NOT a religion.  It has denied the fact over and over again, and
insisted that it was a lodge or brotherhood, and in no way did, nor
was it intended to, take the place of the church in a man's life.
It is claimed that Masonry is universal, its tenets such that they
can be subscribed to by Christian, Jew, Mohammedan and Buddhist
alike, and all may meet in brotherhood at its altars.

Has Masonry been too careful in its explanations? Too vehement in
its denials? Has it so loudly proclaimed it is not a religion that
its followers have been misled into thinking it is not RELIGIOUS?
Has it been fearful of inadvertently stepping on the figurative
toes of some creed, mistaking a creed for religion?

A creed is defined as: "a formally phrased confession of faith; a
brief authoritative summarizing statement of religious belief." As
such, certainly Masonry is not a "creed," but also a "creed" is not
"religion."  What is religion? The dictionary defines it as: "The
recognition of man's relation to a divine superhuman power to whom
obedience and reverence are due; the outward acts and practices of
life by which men indicate their recognition of such relationship;
conformity to the teachings of the Bible, ef fort of man to attain
the goodness of God."

What is Freemasonry? The Masonic Manual of Missouri contains this
definition: "Freemasonry is a beautiful system of morals, veiled in
allegory and illustrated by symbols.  Its tenets are brotherly
love, relief and truth.  Its Cardinal Virtues are Temperance,
Fortitude, Prudence and Justice.  Its religion, if religion it may
be called, is an unfeigned belief in the one living and true God."

In Morals and Dogma Pike offers the following definition:
"Freemasonry is the subjugation of the Human that is in man by the
Divine; the conquest of the appetites and passions by the Moral
Sense and the Reason; a continual struggle, effort and warfare of
the spiritual against the material and sensual.  That victory, when
it has been achieved and secured, and the conqueror may rest upon
his shield and wear his well-earned laurels, is the true HOLY

The time has arrived for Masonry to make its position clear, to not
only admit, but rather to declare, that it is religious, even
though it may well explain it is NOT A RELIGION in the commonly
accepted misuse of the word "religion." An attitude to the contrary
may have been excusable in the past, as the vast majority of
Masons, ignorant of the esoteric teachings, were equally ignorant
of the fact that those teachings constitute religion.  This has
never been true of the Great Masonic Scholars of the past, all of
whose writings show their recognition of the religion in Masonry.
What is religion? "Religion is the recognition of man's relation to
a divine superhuman power to whom obedience and reverence are due."
The Masonic Manual states: "Freemasonry's religion, if religion it
may be called, is an unfeigned belief in the ONE LIVING AND TRUE
GOD." The definition of religion continues: "The outward acts and
practices of life by which men indicate their recognition of such
relationship." Paralleling this the Masonic Manual continues:
"[Freemasonry's] tenets are brotherly love, relief and truth." How
more can one's "outward acts and practices" indicate recognition of
the Supreme Architect of the Universe and the relationship to Him,
than by the practice of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth?
Recognition of Him as Father of all necessitates the recognition of
every fellow man as a brother, demanding brotherly love which
encompasses relief when needed, and above all else, truth.

"Conformity to the teaching of the Bible." Is there ever a time in
the Masonic Lodge when the Bible is ignored? Is it not constantly
open on the altars of Freemasonry? Is not the attention of the
newest Apprentice immediately directed to it? Is he not told: "The
Holy Bible is given us as the rule and guide of our faith and
practice"? Scripture is quoted in each degree, and the closing
prayer is: "and with reverence study and obey the laws which Thou
hast given us in Thy Holy Word." If "conformity to the tea chings
of the Bible" is the criterion on which to decide whether or not
Masonry is religion, the case is already settled in the

What of the last portion of the definition of religion: "Effort of
man to attain the goodness of God."? "Freemasonry is the
subjugation of the Human that is in man by the Divine; the conquest
of the appetites and passions by the Moral Sense and the Reason."
"Effort of man to attain the goodness of God." Who knows the
"goodness of God"? How can it be measured by finite mind? It has
been said, "man makes God in his own image." This is the utterance
of the cynic, but strangely, in a different sense than the or
iginal remark was intended, it is true.  The Book we are admonished
to study "with reverence" informs us that man is made in God's
image.  That likewise is true.  God first made man in His image and
ever since, man has been making God in his own image.  If one sits
between two mirrors he sees his image reflected in the one glass
while the other reflects the image of the image.  Here the material
analog must cease, for as man continues to "make Go d in his own
image," and grows SPIRITUALLY to that first liken ess to which he
aspires, his conception broadens and he immediately makes God in
the image of himself at his newly attained spiritual level, and so
on ad infinitum.  At each step the "goodness of God" comes closer
of attainment.  Eventually man makes God in his image, and the
image is indistinguishable from the object.  Which has made which?
What matters? Only that the ultimate has been reached.

The Master, Jesus, was once asked a question intended to put him in
an embarrassing position with the Roman Authorities.  "Is it lawful
to give tribute to Caesar, or not? * * * Shew me the tribute money.
And they brought him a penny.  And he saith unto them, whose image
and superscription is this? They say unto him Caesar's.  Then saith
he unto them, render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and
unto God the things which are God's." At the time it was the answer
of a shrewd psychologist putting his questioner "on the spot"
intended for himself, but like all his answers, it not only settled
the question at the time but has come down through the ages,
settling the questions of future generations.

What is the significance of this incident to our problem? Call the
material things of life "Caesar," and the spiritual "God." Turn
back to the definition of Masonry and read: "Its Cardinal Virtues
advise to disregard Caesar, or the material, but to render unto it
its just due, being careful to render unto God or the spiritual its
due as well.

"TEMPERANCE" - temperateness, not prohibition of material things,
but judicious use of them, restraint from over-indulgence.  "Be ye
temperate in ALL THINGS." Temperate in what you eat, as well as
what you drink.  Temperate in your remarks and speech.  Temperate
in your judgment of your fellow man, that "due restraint upon our
appetites and passions which render the body tame and governable,
and frees the mind from the allurements of vices." Again quoting
from Morals and Dogma, temperance is the "conquest o f the
appetites and the passions by the Moral Sense and the Reason." It
is also the circumscribing of our desires and the keeping of our
passions within due bounds, not with a brother Mason alone, but

"FORTITUDE" - is an attitude of soul.  According to the dictionary
it is "spiritual strength to endure suffering and adversity with
courage." But could one endure adversity without faith? The only
reason man manifests fortitude is his intuitive knowledge that
fortitude is compensated on the spiritual side of life.

"PRUDENCE" - "Teaches us to regulate our lives and actions
agreeably to the dictates of reason, and is that habit by which we
wisely judge and discreetly determine on all things relative to our
present as well as future happiness."

"JUSTICE" - is the principle of dealing uprightly and fairly with
others, regardless of the material relationship which exists
between us. Justice renders unto each man his due, regardless of
his station in life, without fear or favour.  The just man is a
righteous man, he cannot be otherwise.  The more he "prudently"
envisages what real justice is, the better will be his actions.
The just man will be he to whom Buddha referred when he said: "He
is the noble man who is himself what he believes other men sh ould
be." It is the ultimate of justice not to expect anything of others
we are not willing to do or BE ourselves.

By giving the material due consideration, and in justice rendering
unto it the things which are the material's but giving it no more,
by properly keeping our desires and passions between the extended
points of the compasses, we have automatically rendered unto the
spiritual the things which are the spiritual's.  Man is not a
"division" but a "unity"- Body, Soul and Spirit - and when we
render its due to any undivided part we have served the whole.  Is
this not religion as described as "an effort to attain t he
goodness of God"?

Neither official denial nor confirmation can change facts.  It is
of small consequence whether or not Masonry is acknowledged to be
religion.  The important thing is HOW IT IS PRACTISED.  Draw aside
the veil of allegory from the "beautiful system of morals," thereby
discovering the deeper spiritual truths of its meaning, while at
the same time following the material admonitions.

"Illustrated by symbols" each symbol points a moral lesson and is
used as an example for the material life, but there are always
other interpretations which have reference to the spiritual.  Until
one "seeks and finds that deeper meaning and applies it spiritually
Masonry is NOT religion.  It becomes religion only to him who finds
religion in it, to others it remains but ritual, and at best a
system of morals.  Yet there remains the promise contained in the
"rule and guide of our faith and practice"-"SEEK, AND YE SHALL


Mental Science

"Be specific, be definite in your mental work.  You are dealing
with Intelligence, so deal with It intelligently."

-Ernest Holmes

MENTAL SCIENCE asks no one to accept any statements made in its
behalf that cannot be proven.  We should attempt to prove each
statement as we build our premise, exactly as the investigator in
any other science would proceed to prove his findings.

While all Freemasons necessarily profess a belief in a "one living
and true God," else they could not be members of the Order, for the
sake of consistency a scientific reason should be established for
that belief.

This seemingly is a world of opposites.  Negatives at first glance
appear to be truths, but on analysis are not.  Darkness, of itself,
does not exist.  It is merely the absence of light.  Ignoring the
negative side of the question but turning to the affirmative, let
us build up a rational belief in a Supreme Being.

We exit The Universe exists.  We are conscious of both our own
existence and our surroundings.  Consciousness is a degree of
intelligence.  That same intelligence which makes us aware of our
own existence and the existence of the world in which we live
forces us to admit the prior existence of some creative force which
caused both the universe and ourselves.

This is not an attempt to advance an argument to the individual who
says "we just happened." In fact he will not be reading these
lines.  Such a view is so inconsistent with nature that it requires
no answer from the thinking person.  Nothing in nature "just
happens." There is always a reason for natural action if we but
find it, and we cannot malign the Omni-present because the human
mind cannot grasp the reason for some particular thing and say
"there is no reason, no cause." We must ultimately come to th e
conclusion that we and the Universe are the result of definite,
intelligent planning; in other words - THOUGHT.

The next step in an attempt to find a logical basis for belief is
to ascertain HOW we were created.  Man the finite cannot comprehend
the INFINITE and, therefore, unaided, realize infinity, yet he must
needs attempt that very thing.  Fortunately, there is in every man
that which impels him to seek the infinite, and by means of it
apprehend sufficient of the concept of infinity to pursue the
proper train of thought.

The universe is distinctly material and, being material, there must
have been a time when it did not exist.  Hence the Biblical
statement: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the
earth." This provides a good starting place, and, by applying the
theory of negatives, can be restated; "until created the EARTH WAS
NOT." The Bible carefully states "CREATED, not "BUILT." To "build"
is to construct or rearrange out of existing material.  To "create"
is to materialize something out of apparent nothing.

There is some question. as to the correctness of the translation of
the foregoing passage, the Hebrew word "ROSH" being involved.  It
is true that "rosh" may be translated "beginning" but the best
Hebrew authorities seem to prefer "the head." Thus we are told that
"ROSH HASHANA" means "the HEAD of the year." It is not phrased:
"the BEGINNING of the year." In connection with this distinction of
meaning it should be noted that "the head" carries the inference of
knowledge or wisdom.  It is the seat of wisdom. Thus this passage
may well be translated: "IN WISDOM God created the heavens and the

Returning to the Bible we read: "In the beginning the earth was
without form, and void." That statement seems contradictory, for
regardless of the SHAPE of a thing it cannot be without form.  If
it exists as material, whether round, flat or square, that is its
form.  From this one can only conclude that the earth did not exist
as matter.  How then did it exist, if in the beginning it was
without form and void? Only as thought, an idea, WITHOUT (MATERIAL)
FORM, in the Universal Mind.

The suggested translation lends itself to this line of reasoning.
If we say "in wisdom" rather than "in the beginning," we
immediately predicate a "mental creation" preceding the material
manifestation in form and space.  In another passage we read: "In
the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, etc." "All
things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that
was made." Again we change not the sense, but give it actually more
specific meaning if we translate: "In WISDOM was the wo rd, etc."

Earth then, came into existence through the WISDOM of God and by
the word of God.  What is a word, but the vocalization of a
thought? A "word" must be "THOUGHT" before it can be spoken. (We
seek a "word," and the reason for our quest is that we, too, may
create by means of this word.) A "word" being a spoken thought, we
may now change the initial statement of the Bible to read: "In
WISDOM God THOUGHT the world into being."

Everything in nature indicates the absolute consistency of the
Great Universal Mind, hence we reason when we see the operation of
physical laws, that spiritual laws work on the same basis.  The
Infinite Intelligence can arrive only at a perfect plan of
operation, and that plan is absolute.

In studying nature's laws as a starting point in the "seen" we can
conclude that the operation of spiritual laws in the "unseen" is
similar.  Hence the conclusion can readily be reached that there is
but one set of laws, or one great universal law.  It can be likened
to that portion of a spar seen above the water, because of which we
know the portion under the water of necessity exists.

Wheat planted in the ground produces wheat, and wheat only.  Cattle
bred produce cattle, and cattle of the same type and breed.  Man
produces an offspring of like form and intellect.  If the absolute
immutability of this law could not be depended upon there could be
no assurance of our own continued existence, or of the continuance
of the universe.

If, in the wisdom of Universal Intelligence, the operation of this
law in the material world is satisfactory, why not apply the same
to the spiritual world? This is the dictate of reason, and we may
strengthen our conclusion by the precept of the Bible, which the
Mason is admonished to use as "the rule and guide of his faith and

The Great Teacher suggests the law of like producing like by
several questions he asks, as well as by directly stating it to be
so.  "Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?" Also -
"A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt
tree bring forth good fruit." Again we are specifically told: "And
God said, let us make man in our own image, after our likeness." We
have definitely concluded God is not material, but spirit - Mind.
He could not have referred to man's physical body when he said "in
our own image and likeness," so this can only mean SPIRITUAL

The Bible contains two separate and distinct accounts of the
creation of man.  One which may be called the birth of the idea, or
ideal, of man in the Infinite Mind; the real spiritual "thought
creation" as dearied in the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh verses
of the first chapter of Genesis.  In the second chapter of Genesis,
seventh verse, is found the description of the physical creation,
the actual making of the material body.

William James, writing on the theory of the secondary or subliminal
consciousness, says: "In certain persons, at least, the total
possible consciousness may be split into parts which coexist, but
mutually ignore each other." F. W. H. Myers suggests that the
stream of consciousness in which we habitually live is not our only
one.  According to Bramwell, from whose book, Hypnotism, its
History, Practice and Theory, we are here quoting, Myers termed the
"self below the threshold of ordinary consciousness the s ubliminal
consciousness, and the empirical self of common experience the

Psychology teaches that we have two minds, or one mind capable of
two distinct functions.  It is immaterial for our present purpose
which view we accept, but for the sake of clarity we will
henceforth speak of two minds: the objective, or Myers'
supraliminal, and the subjective, which he describes as the
subliminal consciousness.  The objective mind of man is the
manifestation of the Universal Mind, which is subjective upon the
objective plane.

The objective mind of man, with its ability to reason inductively,
make choices of its own and distinguish between good and evil, is
the highest work of all creation (in a material body) up to the
present time.  By culminating in man, with his objective mind,
evolution has at last produced something which can go on of As own
accord and volition.

While throughout the animal kingdom there is evidence of ability to
reason, and particularly in the higher animals does this approach
more nearly what man terms reasoning, it is man alone who has
attained to the eminence of being a free moral agent; free to make
his own decisions, draw his own conclusions and have cognition of
the existence of the very Universal Law which underlies the
attainment of this stage of his development

With the objective mind man makes his conscious decisions.  It is
the seat of the ability to choose.  HE HAS THE POWER OF CHOICE.  It
is the objective mind which recognizes the fact and says: "I AM!"

The subjective mind is described as being impersonal, passive,
directed by the objective mind and having no will of its own.  It
faithfully follows the dictates of the objective mind.  It is
proven beyond argument that it is also the controller of bodily
functions, as may be recognized when it is realized that we do not
consciously, objectively, direct the heart beat or respiration.
These other functions are not material to the present study, so we
particularly note the IMPERSONAL QUALITY of the subjective mind for
the present.

In a study of the characteristics of the subjective mind, its
impersonal nature may be better understood by observing its action
in hypnotism.  Hypnotism is the displacement of the subject's
objective mind by the objective mind of the hypnotist, in order
that the hypnotist may directly make suggestions to the subjective
mind of the subject.

Mental science teaches that the, subjective mind is impersonal, and
this is readily proven by hypnotism.  In Bramwell's book,
previously quoted, he states relative to changes in personality:
"Here the subject [while under hypnotism] assumes the role
suggested [by the hypnotist], and speaks and acts in accordance
with his conception of the part."

Another fact demonstrated through hypnotism is that the subjective
mind reasons entirely deductively, and is incapable of reasoning
inductively. In inductive reasoning conclusions are drawn from a
number of known facts, whereas deductive reasoning assumes two or
more facts to be true, without actual verification; but, if
correct, then further conclusions must of necessity be true.

Given the initial suggestion by the hypnotist, the subject will
follow through, DEDUCTIVELY even to the most minute detail,
arriving at the correct conclusion with a display of intelligence
at times far superior to the known ability of the objective mind of
the individual.  However, the hypnotized subject will neither show
any tendency, nor evince any ability, to establish inductively the
correctness of the original assumptions, no matter how false, or
even ridiculous, they may appear to the objective mind of an

Mental Science informs us that this subjective mind is the
individual's undivided part of the great subjective mind of the
universe, that creative force which brought us into being, and
therefore we are like our Creator.  Science thus establishes that
we are AS OUR CREATOR, and enlightens us as to the real meaning of
the Biblical statement that man is made in the image and likeness
of God.

So much for the present of Mental Science.  However we hope to
subsequently establish the fact that Freemasonry and Mental Science
are synonymous.  Through its careful and secret teaching
Freemasonry has preserved knowledge of Mental Science through the
dark ages of ignorance, so that in our more enlightened day, when a
man has the right to think for himself and express those thoughts
openly, the great storehouse of knowledge is found stocked with the
fundamental ideas.

However, due to the necessity of secrecy in the past, this
knowledge was concealed in allegory and illustrated only by
symbols.  The full import was unknown, even to some of those who
zealously guarded it and were instrumental in its preservation.
For this reason, even today, it is not an "open book" which may be
read with ease.  The knowledge IS ALL THERE, but it is still
"veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols," and is useless
until laboriously dug out and exposed to the view of the intellect.

This knowledge is ours for the asking.  All we need do is knock at
the door of this storehouse of wisdom and "it will be opened unto
us," but the door is not equipped with an electric eye which will
swing it open as we pass. It takes a "distinct knock," and patience
to gain this important privilege.  It demands a well formed
PERSONAL DESIRE to give the knock and patiently await a due time.
We have encountered in the spiritual world the law of the material
world, and are dealing with personal desire.  We mu st first "form
a favourable opinion" of this knowledge we seek, then request
admission.  That request must be "unbiased by the improper
solicitations of friends, and uninfluenced by mercenary motives."
It must be for a far more noble and glorious reason: "a desire for
knowledge and a sincere desire of being serviceable to your fellow
creatures." Finally, we must be able to truthfully answer: "it is,"
when asked: "Is this of your own free will and accord?"



 "Our starting point is that of a divinely ordained security from
which we may quietly grow into that higher evolution which is the
fulfilment of the law of our own being." -Thomas Troward

WE ARE told that Masonry was originated by King Solomon at the
building of his Temple. However, it is a well established fact that
Masonry is an ancient esoteric philosophy of life, ancient even in
King Solomon's day.

This philosophy has been traced back to the "Lost Continent of
Atlantis." The Great Masters, the "Noahs," of the time, warned of
the impending doom of the continent, assembled the "worthy and well
qualified" of their followers and migrated to Africa.  They took
with them the truths of that philosophy and re-established it in
their new dwelling place.  There we find their ruined temples
which, compared with our lodge rooms, have similar floor plans, the
same "dark north," and many of the same emblems.

In this connection the following quotation from James Churchward in
Children of Mu may prove very enlightening.  "Many Egyptologists
find enigmas concerning the two Egyptian religious cults.  These
apparent enigmas are brushed aside when it is known in what way
Egypt was first peopled and by whom. * * * Egypt was first
colonized by two sets of people, commencing at two separate and
distinct parts.  One set coming to lower Egypt from the west, the
other set coming to upper Egypt from the east. * * * Eventual ly
the upper Egyptians met the lower Egyptians on the valley of the
Nile. * * * A tablet found in Maycarne, Crete, by Schliemann says:
'The Egyptians descended from Misar.  Misar was the child of Thoth,
the God of history.  Thoth was the emigrated son of a priest of
Atlantis.  He built the first temple at Sais and there taught the
wisdom of his native land'."

Also, in South and Central America have been found ruins of Masonic
significance. Churchward advances some strong, if unusual,
arguments to support his claims that all these civilizations
emigrated from the continent of Mu in the Pacific Ocean.*

Modern archaeology has accomplished much in rediscovering the ruins
of the ancient temples, but as yet has not succeeded in bringing to
light the philosophy of the Incas and Mayans to the point where it
can speak with authority.  In Egypt more has been learned from the
temple ruins and hieroglyphics found on other monuments and on the
walls of tombs.

* Those interested in an exhaustive study are referred to the Mu
trilogy by Churchward: The Lost Continent of Mu, The Children of
Mu, The Sacred Symbols of Mu.

That knowledge has brought to light more Masonic allegory and
symbolism, as evidenced in their beliefs and practices.
Unquestionably our third degree derives from the Mysteries of
Osiris, or from the still more ancient legend from which the
Osirian myth itself originated.  This notwithstanding that some
Masons see in the third degree the "enactment of a tragedy" which
occurred at a later date in history.  It is of interest to note
that some modern psychologists claim all these "tragedy" legends
stem from t he same ancient source.  Historically true or false, it
is a psychological necessity, and had there been no Osiris, no
Hiram, no Christ, man's mind would have been compelled to fashion

He who does not wish to accept the "Atlantean" account will find
himself on the threshold of an even more wonderful exhibition of
the universality of Freemasonry if he will analyze the facts.  He
must seek elsewhere for an explanation: that at different places in
the world temples of similar plan, undoubtedly used for similar
rites and decorated with similar and, in some instances, identical
emblems, were constructed.  Why should these widely separated
peoples, with no means of communication, arrive at the same
conclusions regarding their origin and status in the universe? The
only logical answer is contained in the teaching of Mental Science
of an All Intelligent Universal Subjective Mind to which all human
minds have access.  From it they received the TRUTH, and there
being only ONE TRUTH, necessarily, they arrived at the same

To quote Francis Grant: "If miracles exist - does not one lie in
this, that men far removed, at times simultaneously, should
pronounce the same doctrine of Truth and the same path of human
liberation? Apparently all men - whatever their race or creed - may
pluck the same flowers in the Plane of High Heaven." *

This digression from the statement that Masonry is even older than
Masonic tradition claims is for the purpose of establishing more
firmly in your minds the age and universality of its great
philosophy.  Masonry contains within its teaching the whole purpose
of man's existence, and the method of attaining the end of Creative
Spirit in personalizing Itself through man.
Man being created in the "Image of God" possesses within himself
the potential possibilities of infinite progress and evolution.
Harmonizing the Biblical story of creation with the findings of
modern science, evolution, when carefully considered, is not in any
way contradictory to the Bible.  Evolution strengthens our faith in
the Bible's prophetic utter-

* Francis Grant in The Introduction to Oriental Philosophy.

ances as to man's glorious possibilities. Man's primitive
beginnings, when compared with his present attainment, give us
renewed faith in the Divine purpose of the Creator for man to
attain even higher levels than he has already reached, by the
attainment of MASTERSHIP!

Man is a complex being consisting of material, psychical, and
spiritual nature, and material science alone does not completely
satisfy our investigation. Therefore we must direct our attention
to that element within him we call "spiritual," and it is found
that man's "spiritual" nature makes for his highest attainment.
The quality whereby he attains that high evolution is the POWER OF

The creative law of being, implanted in man by Divine Intelligence,
gives man the "freedom of choice," whether to spiritually
retrograde or progress.  The choice, however, lies between these
two; there is no standing still in this universe of motion.
Natural evolution betters the entire race without regard for the
OWN EFFORTS.  The statement that: "previously the Lodge prayed for
you" is, in effect, advising that: "before the LAW OF EVOLUT ION
ADVANCED YOU)); "NOW, You must (pray for) advance YOURSELF!"

In bringing the candidate to that part in the initiation where he
must pray for himself, the Lodge has brought him to the same point
as all others who have gone the way before him.  From this point
(level) individual desire is necessary to make further progress.
not only applies to that particular moment in the Lodge room but to
any further progress in Masonry.  In fact it is not too inclusive

Our quest is for the re-discovery of something lost.  It is the
knowledge of the two-fold principle in nature and specifically,
knowledge of the modus operandi of the Constructive Principle.  The
loss of the knowledge of the Constructive Principle in nature
brought into man's existence its opposite, the Destructive

Light is the symbol of knowledge, and knowledge properly used leads
to wisdom and power.  Therefore the Ancient High-Priest's
breastplate had engraven thereon the two words: "URIM and THUMMIM"



The Secret Doctrine

"FREEMASONRY is a beautiful system of morals veiled in allegory and
illustrated by symbols. Its tenets are Brotherly Love, Relief and
Truth.  Its Cardinal Virtues are TEMPERANCE, FORTITUDE, PRUDENCE,

"Its religion, if religion it may be called, is an unfeigned belief
in the one living and true GOD."

- Masonic Manual of Missouri

IN ADDITION to the definition of Freemasonry on the opposite page
we repeat Pike's definition: "Freemasonry is the subjugation of the
human that is in man by the Divine; the conquest of the appetites
and the passions by the Moral Sense and the Reason; a continual
effort, struggle, and warfare of the Spiritual against the Material
and Sensual.  That victory, when it has been achieved and secured,
and the conqueror may rest upon his shield and wear his well-earned
laurels, is the true HOLY EMPIRE."

These two definitions of Freemasonry are apparently similar, yet
there is a difference.  The latter informs us what Freemasonry is,
and to a limited extent advises how to become a Master Mason
through "the conquest of the appetites and the passions by the
Moral Sense and the Reason." However, it contains thoughts
different from those in the former definition and is more definite
as to the "morals."

The definition from the Blue Lodge Manual very distinctly states
that "this system of morals" is "veiled in allegory and illustrated
by symbols." This statement will bear further investigation.  If it
is correct, it may be assumed there is something underlying the
explanations given in the various lectures of the degrees.
"Something" which is "veiled in allegory and illustrated by
symbols." This can be considered as an instruction where to look
for further meaning.  It is obvious that the "veil" must be pa rted
and the hidden meaning of the "allegory" discovered.  It is equally
obvious that the usually accepted meaning of the symbols is not
enough for our purpose, for then their meaning would be immediately
apparent and such is not the case.  This "system" which they
"illustrate" then must be "illustrated" by a more recondite
interpretation of their meaning than is apparent on the surface to
the casual observer.

Analysis of the actual words in the quotation reveal a subtle
significance not ordinarily attributed to them.  MORALS - The
common use is: "discrimination between right and wrong, chaste,
just, ethical." This word of Latin origin literally means "custom,"
but a shaded meaning states: "verified by reason, logic or

ALLEGORY - "Description of one thing under the image of another.  A
narrative in which a teaching is conveyed symbolically.  Presents a
truth under the guise of fictitious narrative or description."

SYMBOL - "Something that stands for, represents, or recalls
something else, not by exact resemblance, but by suggestion or
associations in thought; especially an object that represents
something abstract, as an idea, quality or condition."

If the definition of Freemasonry is reconstructed in the light of
the words used in the previous definition it will read:
"Freemasonry is a beautiful system of customs, or method of living,
which, if followed, results in one's discriminating between right
and wrong, being chaste, just and ethical.  This custom is verified
by reason and logic.  However, it presents a truth under the guise
of fictitious narrative, and is in reality describing one thing
under the image of another, using actual objects to repre sent
ASSOCIATIONS IN THOUGHT!" There is the answer.  The symbols are not
used in the commonly accepted meaning.  It is "NOT BY EXACT
RESEMBLANCE"; there IS a more recondite interpretation, as we

There is a SECRET DOCTRINE in Freemasonry. That secret doctrine is
concealed, rather than revealed, by the very lectures which, we are
told, offer a "rational explanation" of the ceremonies of
initiation.  If we were to accept these "rational explanations" as
final, and seek no further, Freemasonry would be a farce.  We
should find ourselves on a "dead-end" street from which it would be
impossible to make any progress.

Here it is necessary to digress that we may lay the foundation for
our super-structure (as any Operative Mason would do) by inquiring
into some of the actual history of Freemasonry, to discover its
beginning and evolution.

Historically, we trace Freemasonry to a number of Operative Lodges
in England.  Extant records indicate that in the year 1717 four
lodges in London established themselves under the denomination of a
Grand Lodge which they constituted at that time.  One of the oldest
documents containing a written record of Operative Masonry is the
Regius or Halliwell MS., circa 1390.

Many books have been written proposing various theories as to the
origin of Freemasonry.  The generally accepted theory is that our
present lodges are the outgrowth of the Operative Lodges, or
Guilds, of the Middle Ages.  There is no inclination to question
the fact that our modern lodge AS AN ORGANIZATION, owes its origin
to these Operative Lodges, but what of its esoteric teaching?

Are we to believe that these craftsmen of the medieval guilds, most
of whom were actually illiterate, conceived an entire philosophy
such as Freemasonry, and then, with consummate cunning, concealed
it beneath a complicated system of symbolism and allegory? For the
rank and file, the symbols were used, if at all, for ethical
analogies, and they were as ignorant of the underlying meanings, as
are most Freemasons of today.  They but served the purpose of being
the preservers of its mysteries.  As the reincarn ating soul is
said to choose the body and environment best suited for its growth
and evolution, so may it be that these Operative Lodges were chosen
to form the "body" for the spiritual teachings of the secret

Let us investigate the term "free" as used in relation with
"Mason." Some authorities advance the theory that in ancient times
"bonds-men" could not join the Operative Guilds, hence a Mason was
a "free man" and, perforce, a "Free Mason." Others attach
significance to the word "free" in connection with the request for
admission, it being of the applicant's "free" will and accord.
Both theories find some support in the rituals of various Grand
jurisdictions.  In some jurisdictions the candidate recites his q
ualifications, at the door of the lodge room, as being of "lawful
age, FREE-BORN etc." Here is predicated the theory of being a
"free" man.  All ritual supports the theory of its being of the
candidate's "FREE-WILL" and accord.  Enough theories have been
advanced to fill volumes on the specific subject.  Herein it is not
possible to even comment on all of them.  One of the more
interesting is cited for the benefit of the reader, as it also co
ntains the thought of the antiquity of Masonry.

Robert Hewitt Brown writes: "Long before the building of the Temple
of King Solomon, masons were known as 'sons of light.' Masonry was
practised by the ancients under the name of Lux (light) or its
equivalent, in various languages of antiquity. * * * We are
informed by several distinguished writers that it (the word
masonry) is a corruption of the Greek word 'MESOURANEO' which
signifies 'I am in the midst of heaven,' alluding to the sun,
which, 'being in the midst of heaven,' is the great source of
light. Others derive it directly from the ancient Egyptian 'PHRE,'
the sun, and 'MAS, a child: 'PHRE MASSEN'- the children of the sun,
or Sons of Light."

Regardless of the origin of the modern lodge, or of the name
"Freemasons" we can, after freeing the symbolism of modern
adaptations, discern in Freemasonry the outline of the teachings of
the ancient mysteries of Egypt.  ONE SUPREME BEING - IMMORTALITY OF
and spirit (more correctly expressed as physical, psychical, and
spiritual).  Three planes of being dealt with in three "grades" or
levels of instruction.

Pythagoras said: "God formed two things in his own image: first the
Universe itself, and second, man." The Bible informs: "and God
said, Let us make man in our own image, after our own likeness."
The ancients postulated the complete man as the triune man composed
of body, soul, and spirit.  He was symbolized by the right angle
triangle.  The horizontal represents the physical or material, the
perpendicular represents the psychical or mental, and the
hypotenuse the spiritual. (The complete man symbolized by the right
angle triangle should not be confused with the perfect or spiritual
man, whose emblem is the equilateral triangle.)

The purpose of the mysteries was to teach the candidate the secret
of making of himself the perfect man.  Symbolically, it is the
secret of progressing the right angle triangle to an equilateral
triangle.  As no "whole" can be complete and perfect except its
parts be complete and perfect, their instructions were divided into
three parts, or grades.  The first dealt with the physical, the
second with the psychical, and the third with the spiritual.

The body is the vehicle of the mind and the spirit; and to make it
a fit habitation for them the Mysteries began their instruction
with the purely physical aspect of man and his material relation to
the Universe.  This teaching was that a strong and obedient body
was requisite for the development of a strong mind and, mind being
the instrument of spirit, a strong and well developed mind was
essential to spiritual development.  Theirs was a rigorous and
dangerous initiation, and a strong body was indispensab le to the
candidate if he were to survive the physical ordeals entailed by
the actual initiation as well as the arduous studies necessary for
his mental development.  This occurred before he was even
introduced to the spiritual.  Also, it was necessary to understand
the operation of material laws, for they subscribed to the ancient
theory that the material laws are but the extension into the
manifest universe of the spiritual laws.  "As above, so below ."

The candidate was obliged to spend years, if necessary, in each of
the grades preceding, before he was permitted to proceed in
spiritual instruction.  Under such a system it is obvious that it
was highly essential to "make the necessary proficiency in the
preceding (degrees) grades," before he could be admitted to the
next higher.

If Freemasonry is the actual descendant or, if one prefers the
term, reincarnation of the Mysteries, back of its "veil of
allegory," then must be concealed a deeper truth than expounded in
the various lectures of the degrees.  Therefore, we should be able
to discover a similarity in its degrees with these ancient grades.
The first degree should concern itself with the physical or
material; the second should deal with the psychical or mental; the
third degree wholly with the spiritual. The ceremony of initi ation
in each degree should reveal a more recondite teaching than that
which appears on the surface.  It should be discovered that its
symbology and allegory is as useful to CONCEAL that teaching from
those who do not seek it out as to REVEAL it to him who, "of his
own free will and accord," earnestly and prayerfully attempts to
pierce the veil of mystery.

If the symbols can be consistently interpreted in this manner,
throughout the three degrees, we have confirmed Freemasonry to be
the reincarnation of the Ancient Mysteries of Egypt; we have
rediscovered some part of the ancient teaching and have removed the
veil of allegory from the Great Truth of the Universe.


Entered Apprentice

"Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell
together in unity! It is like the precious ointment upon the head,
that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard; that went down to
the skirts of his garments;

"As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the
mountains of Zion; for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even
life for ever more -One hundred thirty third Psalm

WHAT is the meaning of these words? It is not in a pedantic sense
that I frequently refer to the dictionary for exact word
definition, but in the interest of that harmony of mind so
necessary between author and reader.  Often, there is a subtle
meaning in relation to some specific use which gives an entirely
different conception of the word from the commonly accepted

"ENTER": "to go into, as a room; to join, or become a member of; to
begin or take up, as a business; to gain admission for, as, to
enter a pupil in a school; TO MAKE A BEGINNING."

"APPRENTICE": "One bound by agreement to serve another a certain
number of years in return FOR INSTRUCTION IN A TRADE OR CRAFT; a
novice or one slightly versed in anything; ONE PUT UNDER THE CARE
OF A MASTER FOR INSTRUCTION in a trade or craft."

An "ENTERED APPRENTICE," more clearly understood, is "one who has
just been admitted to the order; WHO IS MAKING A BEGINNING, and is
return for which he is PUT UNDER THE CARE OF A MASTER (THE MASTER?)
FOR INSTRUCTION in Freemasonry."

Every psychical phenomenon has a physical basis, therefore, the
first degree of necessity must deal with the physical.

"Freemasonry regards no man for his worldly wealth or honours * * *
it is the internal and not the external qualifications of a man
which recommend him to Freemasons." This statement in the ritual is
idealistic.  I fear it is like St. Paul's definition of faith: "the
substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not [yet]
seen." In actual practice the man with no "material" standing in
the community would discover as much difficulty in obtaining
admission into a Masonic Lodge as we are informed a "r ich man"
encounters gaining admission into heaven.  Unfortunately for the
welfare of the order, far more concern is shown for the "external
qualifications" than the "internal." Masonry was never intended for
the multitudes; it is not enough that an applicant be a "good man,"
he should also possess the necessary, intellectual capacity to
grasp more than the ethical lessons of the craft.  He should be
capable of understanding its underlying philosophy.

The ritual intends to convey the thought that regardless of
material station in life, social, business or financial, all enter
the Lodge on an equal basis.  The quotation from the ritual is a
spiritual explanation of what is meant by being "worthy and well
qualified." What then is the spiritual meaning symbolized by the
manner of being prepared? Even though "duly and truly prepared,"
none enter on an equal basis, for some are blessed by nature with
better physiques than others.  The inner man, however, is n ot
distinguished by raiment or body.  All are Sons of God and equal,
POTENTIALLY.  Here is the true explanation.

We are told to have patience for a far more important reason than
the one offered at the time.  The real reason is to teach the
method of operation of creative thought.  Thought is creative.
Nothing has ever been created in the universe except by thought.
God is not material; He creates by thought; and man, in his image,
must also create by thought.  "The end of a work is in the thought
in the beginning." A great book, a beautiful composition of music,
a lovely painting - all are created in the mind of th e artist by
thought, and thought alone.  Man, within certain limitations,
creates conditions in the material world by his thinking.  "As a
man thinketh in his heart, so is he." This truth holds good whether
man thinks good or evil; he is "as he thinketh."

Are not evil actions the culmination of evil thoughts? Likewise, it
is necessary to "think" good deeds, acts of charity, kind services,
ere they are effected; and thus it follows that, noting a man's
good deeds we call him good.  The evil man is called vile because
of his evil actions.  In each case is not the man then RECOGNIZED
to be what he THOUGHT himself to be? This is direct working of
impersonal law.  The choice is entirely with man; the Law works out
the results - "as a man thinketh" - CAUSE - "so i s he" - resultant
condition or EFFECT.

Let us further examine this statement that "as a man thinketh, so
is he." It appears that in one respect we have no choice; we cannot
change the Law of Creative Thought, but we can definitely control
what we shall be, for the answer to that is also in the statement.
We shall be what we THINK ourselves.  Here we HAVE THE POWER OF
CHOICE; we can choose what we THINK ourselves to be, and by so
doing control what we shall be, even though we cannot control the
law.  You do not change the law, you change the app lication.  It
is the same in the material world.  The iron ship floats by the
same law by which the piece of iron sinks.  Again it is

It is not the universal law of mind that an individual may at once
become "as he thinketh." Spiritually, the effect is immediate, for
on the spiritual plane there is no "time," and we are immediately
what we think ourselves to be; but even after thinking the proper
creative thought we have not complied with all the requirements.
These are the same on the spiritual plane as on the material plane;
if they were not, our material lessons would be useless to us.

These requirements are, first: "it must be of our own free will and
accord." We must have the desire.  That desire must be "unbiased by
the improper solicitations of friends, " and it must be
"uninfluenced by mercenary motives." The only motive which will
admit us is a "desire for knowledge," and even that must be
"unselfish." But all this is not sufficient.  We discover we must
be "duly and truly prepared" as well as "worthy and well
qualified." And we must ourselves give the "knock." This is not
done for us.  Even when the knock is heard and the door mat opened
we are not immediately admitted.  Other formalities are necessary
within the lodge, and we are forced to wait a time.

Here is where patience is essential.  Patience is part of the
preparation.  Even those with pure motives, "worthy and well
qualified," must acquire patience as a virtue.  Should the
candidate at the door of the lodge become impatient and refuse to
wait until the proper action takes place within the lodge, of which
he has no knowledge, he would never gain admission. just so in the
spiritual realm.  When we desire to materialize our thoughts into
definite, specific action and become impatient for its manifest
ation in our material life it never happens.  We have turned away
from the door before the affirmative answer has been returned.  The
analogy is exact, for the candidate never fails to gain admission
when the law, of the lodge is complied with.  The same is true on
the spiritual plane.  Comply with the LAW of Creative Thought and
it will never fail to respond in the affirmative.

There is a Universal Law of which we shall learn more as we
advance, for Masonry is a progressive science.  This law is founded
on universal principles, among which is a negative as well as a
positive result, not by action but rather by application.  As an
example, we have transmission gears in an automobile. To reverse
the car we do not change the direction of the engine's rotation,
but by applying the reverse gear we move the car backward with the
same engine rotation with which we propel it forward.  Uni versal
Law is the same.  It moves in only one direction, AFFIRMATIVELY.
But, by mis-application, we do obtain negative results.  This
lesson may be learned from a sharp instrument.  It has the
potentiality of becoming an instrument of torture if so applied,
but of itself it is impersonal, desiring neither to do good nor
harm.  The final result is dependent on the reaction to it of the
person whom it confronts.

The teaching that one's faith is well founded when his trust is in
God is not new, but it is one of the greatest lessons encountered
in Masonry.  And if the meaning is correctly understood, it gives a
firm foundation on which to build the spiritual explanation of the
entire ceremony of initiation.  That theory can be applied without
inconsistency to the entire Masonic structure.  Thus interpreted,
Freemasonry is Mental Science, demonstrating that God, the
Infinite, is in all, through all, and IS all.  This is the God in
whom the Mason places his trust, the God to whom he kneels and

When one arises from a kneeling position he raises his body to a
higher level.  When the arising is spiritual, or mental, he attains
a higher level of consciousness.  When this is applied to the
mental process, with a real trust in God, he rises to a higher
level of awareness, and his "conductor," conscience, or "that still
small voice," becomes a guide on whom he can truly rely "with
confidence." The higher the reach of this awareness, the more
nearly in tune with the Infinite does that inner guidance beco me.
Therefore, with a well founded faith, a conductor upon whom he can
rely and who is able to "see man needs fear nothing.  His
consciousness is far above the material plane where any acts of man
can harm.  The candidate is not kept in this condition for long,
neither is the individual whom he typifies.  For when man attains
the attitude of soul where he can declare his trust is in God - can
arise, spiritually, and follow his conductor - he is quickly led
from darkness into everlasting LIGHT.

"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.  And the
earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of
the deep.  And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
And God said, Let there be light; and there was light." This Divine
Fiat does not refer to the physical light of the heavenly bodies.
In the story of creation it is definitely stated that they were
created at a later time.  This light, commanded to be, was the
Great Light of which the ancients taught that th e Sun was but a
representation and a reflection.

On the physical plane it is light through the reflection of the
Sun; on the intellectual plane it is enlightenment.  Thus the
candidate is first given material light in the ancient form
practised in the Lodge, then intellectual light by the
interpretation of the symbols which he is enabled to behold by the
physical light given him.  And as the Divine Fiat was the beginning
of life in the Universe - the Great Lodge - so the Master's command
is the beginning of life for the candidate in the earthly Lodge.

Just as the candidate's attention is directed to one group of
lights which he is able to see with the aid of the
"REPRESENTATIVES" of another group, we will here direct attention
to the fact that, while there will be subsequent changes in the
position of two of those of the first group, there will be no
change in the Holy Bible.  Comment on the significance of these two
sets of lights will be reserved until later, when other subject
matter better lends itself to their explanation.  For the present
no space need be given to discussing the spiritual aspect of the
Bible.  While it is far richer in its spiritual instruction, it
also contains invaluable information for the living of a successful
life on the material plane.  The Entered Apprentice degree being
material, it is these material admonitions which are of most
interest to the Apprentice Mason.

Our next concern should be an investigation of the symbology of the
Square and Compasses and an understanding of the meaning of the
Square being placed above the Compasses.  There is definite reason
for this position.

We must not look with contempt upon the learning of the ancient
world.  The enlightened individual of those times apparently knew
as much, or more, about the unnerve as do we.  The popular
conception, however was that the earth was flat and square, and the
heavens enclosed it, extending above in a mighty dome.

A Square is an instrument whereby planes and surfaces are measured;
the Compasses is an instrument for the measuring of spheres.
Symbolically, the Square represents the earth, and the Compasses
the heavens.  The next logical step was to use the Square to
symbolize all material things and, as the "heavens" and "spiritual"
came to be used synonymously, it was but natural the Compasses was
used generally to symbolize whatever pertained to the spiritual.

The "cube" was emblematic of man because, when unfolded, it becomes
a cross, representing the physical body of man, standing erect with
arms outstretched to the sides.  As a "cube" viewed from one side
appears a square, and, as a square was the symbol of the material
or physical, it at times was also used to symbolize material man.
The Compasses, symbolizing the spiritual, was used to represent
spiritual man, differentiated from the material man. (1)

With this explanation is the materiality of the first degree
demonstrated.  The Square is emphasized by being placed above the
Compasses," and the explanation of the use of the Square is offered
before that of the Compasses, despite the fact that Masonically the
Compasses is recognized as the more important symbol.

Both the Square and Compasses are symbolical of man.  The Square,
the material man, the Compasses, the spiritual man.  And, as the
Square is placed above the Compasses, we are to understand that in
this degree the material dominates the spiritual.  This could not
be otherwise, for the candidate as yet knows nothing of the Truth
of Freemasonry, and has not learned to circumscribe his desires and
practice those virtues which will eventually enable the spiritual
man to control the life of the individual.  Beca use of ignorance
and false thinking, man has travelled far from the spiritual, his
starting point, and the material man has taken full possession.
This is where we now discover him, kneeling at the altar, admitting
he is in the darkness of ignorance, supplicating for guidance

(1) For a more extensive explanation of the symbology of the Square
and Compasses see The Royal Arch - Its Hidden Meaning, pages 86 and

toward the light.  He must retrace his steps from the material to
the spiritual.  He is but starting to do so; he is an ENTERED

Just as do we, the ancients postulated an Infinite Creator. Being
the "first" complete figure which can geometrically be drawn - the
triangle.  We have come to regard the ancients as polytheists, and
this is correct as applied to the masses, but the learned were
monotheists.  They believed in ONE Supreme Being with three
aspects.  As stated, a triangle was the logical symbol for such a
deity, it being the first geometrical figure which can be formed,
thereby indicating "FIRST CAUSE." It is endless as a desi gn,
thereby signifying "that which has no beginning nor, ending" the
ETERNAL.  It is composed of three sides, and in the equilateral
triangle each is of equal length, thus symbolizing the three equal
attributes of God: The Creator, the Preserver, the Destroyer -
Brahma, Vishnu, Siva of the Hindu; the Father, the Son and the Holy
Ghost, or Great Three in One of Orthodox Christianity.
Some confusion may develop in the mind of the reader unfamiliar
with symbology, and this may be an opportune time to offer a
clarifying explanation before we enter more fully into the subject.
One great difficulty in the beginning of the study of symbology is
our expectation of discovering immutable meaning.  Such is not the
case.  The meaning of symbols, like words, is largely predicated by
the specific use and association.  If one says: "The Scotch are a
thrifty RACE," the word "race" is used in an entir ely different
sense than if he asks: "Which horse won the RACE?"

A right angle triangle is usually symbolic of the complete man (as
referred to in the Bible, composed of Body, Soul and Spirit).  It
may also have almost any spiritual reference desired, dependent
strictly on how used.  An equilateral triangle with an angle
pointing upward always symbolizes the PERFECT (spiritual) man, not
to be confused with the complete man.  The same equilateral
triangle with an angle pointing downward is never symbolical of
anything but Deity. With this explanation we may continue with a
clearer concept of meanings.

On page 64, in connection with the pillar of that name, is found an
explanation of the meaning of Boaz.  In view of that explanation it
is discovered that the word was not chosen at random, but has a
fitting and peculiar meaning.  As used in this degree, it has
reference to the STRENGTH of the physical, in relation to the
WISDOM of the psychical and the BEAUTY of the spiritual (this being
the material degree of Masonry).  It likewise should be a reminder
to the Apprentice that his start in Freemasonry was s trictly of
All things in symbolism have meaning if we but discover the key.
The best assurance of being on the right track is that our
interpretations be separately reasonable and collectively
consistent.  Again, referring to the meaning of the names of the
two columns, and applying that interpretation to a physical
position well known to the Apprentice, we discover "Boaz," the
column on the LEFT, typifies "personal choice." "Jachin," the
column on the RIGHT, signifies "LAW." Thus it is disclosed that by
"personal ch oice" certain "symbols" are "supported," and are
maintained in that position by "Universal Law." To be more explicit
would be a Masonic indiscretion.  It is hoped the reader is
familiar enough with the ceremony of initiation to benefit by this
explanation, vague as it necessarily must be.  A more material
explanation is that one may grasp the great "enlightenments" which,
for the first time, are offered.  Thereafter it is a reminder to
one that he grasped the essentials of Freemasonry, for thes e three
parti cular symbols are the very essentials of all Masonic

The flap of an apron turned up appears as a triangle surmounting a
square, the square being the lower portion of the apron, In this
position it symbolizes the "two" men separated.  The square below
is the material man with no spiritual part.  The triangle above
represents the spiritual, hovering over, but not yet having entered
the material.  In evolution it depicts the "brute-man" before the
advent of the spiritual, which we term the dawn of conscience.  The
ancients' axiom: "As above, so below" is recalle d.  What is the
counterpart "above" of this symbology? It is the story of creation.
The triangle, or flap, is the Spirit of God, hovering above the
waters (the material) from which He is about to manifest the
material universe.

The working tools of an Entered Apprentice are: "The TWENTY-FOUR
INCH GAUGE and the COMMON GAVEL.  They are thus used: The
TWENTY-FOUR INCH GAUGE is an instrument made use of by operative
masons to measure and lay out their work; but we, as Free and
Accepted Masons are taught to make use of it for the more noble and
glorious purpose of dividing our time.  Being divided into
twenty-four equal parts, it is emblematic of the twenty-four hours
of the day, which we are taught to divide into three equal parts;
wh ereby are found eight hours for the service of God and a
distressed worthy brother, eight for our usual vocations and eight
for refreshment and sleep." The first two services are coupled, and
the inference is plain that in assisting a worthy distressed
brother we are serving God.  This is in complete harmony with the
teaching of the Bible: "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least
of these, ye have done it unto me."

Another third of our time is to be devoted to "our usual
vocations," while the remaining third is "for refreshment and
sleep." This is rendering unto Caesar, or the material, the things
which are Caesar's, and unto God, the spiritual, the things which
are God's.  We are to serve God and the worthy brother, but we are
also to "render" the proper time to our vocations or means of
livelihood, and "render" to the body its just due by attending to
its needs, "refreshment and deep." On careful analysis it is disc
overed that to do the last two we also serve God, for again we are
reminded that one cannot benefit an undivided portion of a thing
without promoting the interests of the "whole."
Despite the beauty of this ethical teaching there is a greater
underlying spiritual truth.  Grasping the TWENTY-FOUR INCH GAUGE by
the centre portion we see it to be a horizontal, symbol of the
material or physical.  Turn the left-hand third upward, thereby
forming a ninety degree angle, and we have not only formed a square
but we have raised a perpendicular, symbol of the psychical, the
soul with its intuitive "upward" aspirations.  Move this third
slightly to the right, bringing the right hand third up to meet it,
and an equilateral triangle has been formed with an angle pointing
upward, symbol of the PERFECT or DIVINE MAN. which the Apprentice
aspires to become - in fact, the symbol of the ONLY GOAL he should
have had in view if his original declarations were sincere.  Here
in this one instrument is the ENTIRE teaching of Masonry: the
progress from the material man to the PERFECT DIVINE MAN, made in
God's own image. Also, the method of achieving su ccess is
symbolized: give equal attention to each level of existence, the
physical, psychical and spiritual, for each being one third, we are
taught that each is,equally important to form the complete whole.
"The COMMON GAVEL is an instrument made use of by operative masons
to break off the corners of rough stones, the better to fit them
for the builder's use; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are
taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of
divesting our hearts and consciences of all the vices and
superfluities of life, thereby fitting our minds as living stones,
for that spiritual building, that house not made with hands,
eternal in the heavens."

This explanation involves a significant fact of mental science.  We
divest our HEARTS and CONSCIENCES of all the vices and
superfluities of life, but we do not fit them (our hearts and
consciences), to become anything.  It is the MIND that we are told
is being fitted to become a living stone, because the MIND is the
image of God.  The body's only claim to consideration is the fact
that for the time being it is the house the MIND inhabits, while
fitting itself for its greater destiny.  Masonry has but one mi
ssion - to teach the truth of our being, which will fit the mind
for its destined place in the Universe.

Here is a bold and unreserved statement of fact - the symbolical
illustration is evident.  There is no concealment behind a veil of
allegory.  Freed of poetic phrasing and expressed in every-day
English, it informs us that "our minds" are all the "WE" that
exists.  They are to be transformed into stones of a building "not
made with hands," hence not material.  Separate stones in any
building retain their individuality even after being combined into
one solid mass.  Thus, the simile, carried to its logical c
onclusion, indicates the need of the Great Architect of the
Universe for CERTAIN STONES for SPECIFIC PLACES in the finished
Temple.  It also draws aside the veil for a fleeting moment and
hints at the continuing self consciousness of the individual ego.

That the mind takes its place in a "Temple eternal in the heavens"
implies that it is eternally evolving toward abiding perfection.
Infinity is not composed of past or future, but only an EVERLASTING

Here is a real "being brought from darkness to light" - the
discovery: "WHAT WE ARE," "WHY WE ARE," "WHAT WE ARE TO BE." This
discovery presents to doubting minds an intellectual foundation for
hope.  It reveals a REASON to our "finite intelligence" for
"Infinite Intelligence" to have quarried us, as individuals, out of
the unknown quarry of infinity.  It furnishes a motive for the
present shaping of our lives.

A "material lesson" is exemplified by a certain request made of the
candidate, which is explained to him on that occasion.  At one time
it is said to have been the usage, after initiation in the first
degree, to ask the candidate to write all he remembered of what had
occurred "that it might be laid up in the archives of the Lodge,
etc." If the candidate started to write the pen was struck from his
hand.  This dramatization was the basis for a lecture on the
proneness of man to lightly regard his "solemn ob ligations." The
incident was used to warn him that he must be constantly on guard
if he hoped to accomplish that "subjugation of the human" which is
the objective of every Mason.

Each of these rites of initiation springs from the ancient
Mysteries, but are confusions of the original.  The ancient
philosophy taught four classifications of data:

"THINGS WE KNOW." These are only things known to us through
personal experience.  We KNOW we exist.  We KNOW other people
exist.  We KNOW steel is hard.  We KNOW glass is brittle and will

"THINGS WE ASSUME TO KNOW." The everyday facts we ASSUME to know,
and by them guide our actions.  We ASSUME TO KNOW that a certain
man is our father, a certain woman is our mother, but we cannot
KNOW, in terms of personal knowledge.  We ASSUME TO KNOW the earth
is round, that it rotates on its axis, and revolves about the Sun,
but few have demonstrated this so they may state they KNOW from
personal experience.

"THINGS WE BELIEVE." There are many things we believe, which we
neither KNOW nor even ASSUME TO KNOW.  Followers of certain
religions have BELIEVED in a god or gods. Christians BELIEVE in
Jesus Christ.  It is claimed by many that they are inspired to
believe, but none can claim to KNOW from personal experience, nor
can they ASSUME TO KNOW because of the experience of others.

KNOW, ASSUME TO KNOW, or profess to BELIEVE.  Of the stars, we KNOW
of their existence, we admit our ignorance of the number of stars
in the heavens.  We would not even speculate on the number of
grains of sand on the sea shores, or where space begins and ends.

This is said to have been explained to the candidate in the
Mysteries, and he was then requested to write those things of which
he could say "I KNOW." In those ancient days only the few were
learned, knew of the Mysteries, and were "prompted to solicit the
privileges of the order by a favourable opinion conceived of the
institution." When a man who rightfully considered himself far
above the average intelligence, in knowledge, was brought face to
face with the actual fact of HOW LITTLE HE REALLY KNEW, he le arned
a valuable lesson.  The vast disparity between what he REALLY KNEW
and the tremendous store of knowledge yet to be acquired by him
revealed to him "his destitute condition."

If ever he entertained intellectual egotism, it turned to a deep
sense of humility.  If he were "worthy and well qualified" a great
and sincere desire was born for "more light," and thus, in
humbleness and truth, he took up his quest.  It also taught him
that should he ever meet a brother in like destitute condition he
should administer to his needs.  We too often envision lack of
worldly possessions when we think of destitution.  There is far
worse poverty in which man finds himself; it is that destitution of
mind and spirit - IGNORANCE.  What more lasting benefaction can one
confer upon a fellow man, "worthy and distressed" than

It is the intention to discuss only those questions of the
proficiency examination as will illuminate the Secret Doctrine.
Being mindful of the fact that many allusions to these questions
and answers must of themselves be veiled, the reader may gain more
satisfaction from the following explanations if he refreshes his
mind on the examination before proceeding further.

Consider the first question asked the Entered Apprentice.  The
Bible describes man as made in the image of God.  Before his
"temptation and fall," allegorically narrated in the story of the
Garden of Eden, he was perfect.  It is to this original state of
perfection the candidate alludes.  It is obvious the answer is not
literal, so it can only be allegorical.  To understand the allegory
it is necessary to understand the terminology used.  The Bible
refers to two "Jerusalems": one the material city of that n ame,
the other the symbolic "Holy City." The meaning of the Hebrew word
"Jerusalem," as generally translated, is given as a "place or city
of perfect peace." But the last syllables, "shalom," do not convey
their true Hebrew meaning when translated "peace." They imply far
more: "wholeness" - "completeness in all parts" - "complete,
inferring perfection"; thus, "completeness of being."

"John" from the Hebrew "Jochonan" or "Yochonan," means "favored of
God, or "favored by God." "Lodge" is a very elastic word of many
inferences.  There is the "Masonic Lodge," embracing all Masonry;
the specific "Lodge," meaning a room; also the specific "Lodge,"
meaning a constituted membership, irrespective of where they may
be; "the Lodge on High," which refers, not to a place, but to a
state of existence.  A "Lodge of Jerusalem," then, would be a i
"state of existence, in completeness of being, favored o f God." No
reason is given why anyone should leave such a state of existence.
For that answer one must refer to the story of the Garden of Eden.
Suffice for our purposes that the answer indicates the candidate's
familiarity with all these facts, and also a knowledge of the means
of remedying his condition.  Psychically, he desires to LEARN.
From a material viewpoint, he wishes to subdue his passions.
Spiritually, he desires to improve himself in F reemasonry.  What
then is this Freemasonry in which he de sires to improve himself?
Elsewhere it has been defined as the "subjugation of the human that
is in man by the Divine." It is through this subjugation that he
eventually REGAINS his lost estate, his Divinity.

Subtly, it is brought out in the next question and answer that he
has not yet regained his Divinity, even though he has attained to
the degree of Entered Apprentice.  In the question, which is in the
form of an inquisitive statement, the word "PRESUME" is prominent.
The candidate replies with no categorical statement, his answer
concurs in the presumption.

Previously it was stated that the first degree dealt with the
material, and this fact is emphasized by the manner in which an
Apprentice claims he may be known.  The Fellow-craft lecture
states: "The five human senses are HEARING, SEEING, FEELING,
SMELLING and TASTING; the first three of which are deemed
peculiarly essential among Freemasons." Added to these material
means are the perfect points of entrance.

"Perfect" is defined as: "Without defect, lacking nothing.  Fully
skilled and accomplished." Therefore the "perfect," or "fully
skilled and accomplished," entrance into Freemasonry is illustrated
by the four cardinal virtues of TEMPERANCE, FORTITUDE, PRUDENCE and
JUSTICE.  Here is the instruction that the TRUE MASON may be known
by HIS CONDUCT.  This is also one of the reasons why the statement
is later made to the candidate that it is not known if he will ever
become a Mason.  On serious consideration the reasonableness of
this statement becomes apparent.  How can it be known if any
individual will ever became a Master Mason, IN FACT? It cannot be
known whether he will guide his life by the constructive principles
outlined in Masonic teaching, and so conduct himself that he will
reach his goal.

What makes a man a Mason? Is it the mere promise to "do certain
things" and "refrain from doing certain other things" which we term
an "obligation"? More correctly, this but binds him to the
Fraternity, makes him a MEMBER of the material organization we call
a "Lodge"; but it in nowise makes him a Mason.  That which makes
him a Mason is "THAT OBLIGATION" each individual owes to Deity.

Here we discover that all the truths of Freemasonry are not
elucidated in exact chronological order, but are found scattered
and hidden throughout the ritual and actual workings of the Lodge.
In an unexpected place we discover more light on the nature of the
"obligation." It is contained in the prayer offered in the regular
closing of the Lodge.  The pertinent portion of that prayer is as
follows: "Pardon, we beseech Thee, whatever Thou hast seen amiss in
us since we have been together, and continue to us Thy presence,
protection and blessing.  MAKE US SENSIBLE OF THE RENEWED
separate and return to our respective places of abode, wilt Thou be
pleased so to influence our hearts and minds that we may, each one
INCULCATED IN IT, and with reverence study and obey the laws which
Thou hast given us in Thy Holy Word."

Here is the "obligation" which makes a man a Mason: The "OBLIGATION
to "improve oneself in Freemasonry"; to grow from the potential to
the Ideal Man.  This development may be attained by the practice of
the cardinal virtues and by conforming one's life to the plans of
the Supreme Architect as it is given to understand them.  Thus the
candidate discovers that, IN A SENSE, his "obligation" has made him
a Mason, not of itself, but through his recognition of his

A desire originating in the heart, in contradistinction to the cold
logic of the objective mind, is an intuitive desire for spiritual
advancement.  THE REAL DESIRE to become a Mason is a "desire for
knowledge," an unselfish desire, and it cannot be actuated by any
other motives.  When the applicant sincerely subscribes to the
lofty sentiment of his original declaration he may truthfully claim
the desire originates in his heart.

The fact that this degree is material has been pointed out in a
number of instances, and there remains further evidence of this
thesis.  One need but visualize the position of the candidate
described as that "due form," together with the symbolic import of
the "square." A custom of Operative Masonry will also substantiate
this assertion.

In Operative Masonry it is customary to lay the cornerstone of a
structure in the north-east corner.  A corner-stone laying is
generally made an occasion of ceremony, and is symbolical of the
nominal starting point of the building.  Thus, this custom of
placing it in the north-east corner indicates that at that
particular point the first step toward the actual construction of
the edifice was commenced.

When thus placed, it is then and there that spiritual evolution
begins; and that evolution is just as definitely in harmony with
Universal Law as is material evolution.  Material evolution
advances the RACE to a relative level.  ALL are placed in the
north-east corner, upon the first step; ALL are given an EQUAL
opportunity.  Thenceforward the individual must do for himself what
evolution (the Lodge) previously did for him, and his further
advancement is strictly his INDIVIDUAL, PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY.


Entered Apprentice Lecture

"There is no special law for anybody, but anybody can specialize
the law by using it with a fuller understanding of how much can be
got out of it."

-Thomas Troward

THE third section of the first degree treats of a Lodge, its Form,
Supports, Covering, Furniture, Ornaments, Lights and jewels: How
situated and to whom dedicated." These are the introductory words
of the Lecturer to the Candidate, following the explanation of the
rite of initiation whereby he has just been inducted into the
Lodge.  As this lecture is usually printed in full in manuals of
almost all jurisdictions the writer considers that fact sufficient
criterion for him to quote as freely therefrom as see ms desirable.

"A Lodge is a certain number of Freemasons, duly assembled, with
the Holy Bible, Square and Compasses, and a Charter from a Grand
Lodge authorizing them to meet and work."

To "meet and work" means to assemble and "OPERATE" in Masonry.  But
as we are informed that the Holy Bible is the "Great Light" of
Masonry and is given us "as the rule and guide of our faith and
practice," it is apparent that it is a necessity in any regular
lodge.  The "Square and Compasses" are emblematic of the dominion
of the spiritual over the material, the achievement of which is the
only true purpose of "meeting and working." While comparatively of
modern origin, the "Charter from a Grand Lodge" is e ssential for
the "material" subordinate Lodge to operate "LAWFULLY." A Lodge can
be formed without a charter from a Grand Lodge, but it would be
clandestine and not "recognized" by "regular Masons," and it will
not prosper because it operates "illegally." From this we learn a
lesson in the spiritual operation of Universal Law. Just as a
"clandestine lodge" can be formed, having all the outward
appearances of a "regular Lodge," so certain spiritual and psy chic
forces may be invoked, having the appearance of the genuine, but
not being in conformity with the Constructive Principle in nature,
will react to the detriment of the individual.  One need but turn
to some of the more recent findings of modern psychology to verify
this lesson.

"The form of a Lodge is * * * from east to west, between north and
south, from the centre to the circumference, and from earth to
heaven." This is "said to denote the universality of Freemasonry
and that a Freemason's charity should know no bounds." This is only
the "rational explanation." This description of a Lodge is not that
of the material Lodge but of the Universe itself.  It extends from
east to west, from north to south, from the centre to the
circumference and from earth to heaven.  Figuratively, i t extends
from "earth to heaven." Scientifically, it extends or encompasses
earth (material) and heaven (spiritual).

The spiritual man is a member of this "Lodge, meeting and working
in that Great Lodge, the Universe.  There he is to practice "those
great moral virtues" which are inculcated in the (material) Lodge,
and which will assist the Great Architect in the building of "that
Temple" which He has planned and over which He presides as Master.

"The supports of a Lodge are three, denominated, Wisdom, Strength
and Beauty; because there should be Wisdom to contrive, Strength to
support and Beauty to adorn all great and important undertakings."
This allegory, like many another, has two distinct meanings which
may be more readily appreciated in the statement of Pythagoras that
"God made two things in His image - the Universe itself, and man."
It is a mathematical axiom "that things equal to the same thing are
equal to each other." If both the Universe and Man are made in the
image of God, Man is also in the image of the Universe; he is the
Universe in miniature.

As symbolical of the Universe, these three columns represent the
Wisdom of Universal Mind, the Strength of that Great Power, and the
resultant Beauty and harmony which Infinite Wisdom, working through
Infinite Power, has produced.  As emblematic of man, we find the
three sides of the triangle: the Wisdom of the psychical, supported
by the Strength of the physical, resulting in the Beauty of the
spiritual.  Again in a different form, under different allegorical
treatment, we are taught the same lesson of Mas onry: Man is
triune, and no man is perfect, nor can he attain to perfection
without giving due consideration to each plane of being; all three
must be blended in the perfect harmony, which is the Perfect Man.

"The covering of a Lodge is no less than the clouded canopy or
star-decked heavens * * *" The "heavens" typifies the spiritual as
"above the material" and is so used here.  "Heaven" is not a place
but a state of being.  "We hope to at last arrive by the aid of
that theological ladder which Jacob, in his vision, saw extending
from earth to heaven * * *" The statement that this ladder had
"three principal rounds" is not in conformity with ancient
teaching, which attributes seven rounds to the ladder.  The exp
lanation of the seven rounds is occult and, as the lecture refers
to three rounds, our explanation will attempt to cover the lecture
rather than raise the question as to the correctness of its
statements.  If the reader will refer to page 120 where the "seven
liberal arts and sciences" are discussed, further light on the
"seven" is revealed, and it is directly in connection with these
rounds of the ladder, although the ritual does not call atte ntion
to the connection.

That theological ladder which Jacob saw in his vision had "three
principal rounds which are denominated Faith, Hope and Charity;
which admonishes us to have Faith in God, Hope in Immortality and
Charity to all mankind." "The greatest of these is Charity; for
Faith may be lost in sight; Hope end in fruition; but Charity
extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of
eternity." It is no coincidence that it is possible to substitute
for "Faith, Hope and Charity," IN THE SAME SEQUENCE: Physical, Psyc
hical and Spiritual.  This passage will then read: "THE GREATEST OF
THESE IS SPIRITUAL; for the Physical may be lost in sight (death of
the body); the Psychical end in fruition (the intellect may
perceive the ultimate and have no more to learn); but the SPIRITUAL
EXTENDS BEYOND THE GRAVE, through the boundless realms of
eternity." Thus the means of attaining "heaven" or perfection is
pointed out to us.  Again, the candidate bas been told of man's
trinity of being, and another symbol is made use of to light the

"The ornaments of a Lodge are the Mosaic Pavement, the Indented
Tessel and the Blazing Star.  The Mosaic Pavement is emblematic of
human life, checkered with good and evil." That is the least that
it typifies.  Its real purpose is to furnish an insight into the
working of the Great Universal Law of compensation.  It is a
repeated reminder that there is "darkness)) as well as "light," an
"ebb tide" as well as "flow." It also contains a more subtle
lesson.  The "Mosaic Pavement" of Solomon's Temple was the fl oor
across which the ancient Jew walked toward the Holy of Holies;
thus, to arrive at that sacred place he must use the black squares
as well as the white to walk upon.  He learned that, as he
progressed through life toward perfection, he should profit from
the so-called "evil experiences," the ills and misfortunes,
encountered along the way, equally with the "good." From this the
ancient Jew was to formulate that philosophy which grew to be the
dominant factor in his life, and which no doubt is largely res
ponsible for his preservation to this day.  He discovered that,
while one may not be able to change conditions and has little
control over them, he can control HIS OWN ATTITUDE TOWARD THOSE
CONDITIONS.  He might not be able to escape stepping upon the black
squares in the pavement, but he could use them as stepping stones
to further his progress toward his desired goal!

Mackey gives a lengthy description in his Masonic Encyclopedia of
the Indented Tessel, recites the varied names by which it has been
called and supplies an exoteric explanation of its symbology.  He
neither gives, nor does he infer, any esoteric significance.  The
writer has been unable to discover any ancient symbology with which
it may be connected.  Pike disposes of it as having no symbolical
meaning, "and if any is attached to it, it is fanciful and

The "Blazing Star" consists of two equilateral triangles - the
shield of David, also sometimes known as the Seal of Solomon.  The
equilateral triangle with an apex pointing downward is emblematical
of the Creator, the apex pointing toward the Universe, the Created.
The equilateral triangle with an apex pointing upward is the symbol
of the perfect man, made in His image, the apex pointing to God,
the Creator.  When intertwined as a six-pointed star they form a
SINGLE FIGURE, symbol of the final unity of God and the perfect
Divine Man.  This is the symbol of AT-ONE-MENT.  Likewise it is the
symbol of the Buddhist's Nirvana, the misunderstood and, therefore,
much maligned "absorption into the Universal" of the individual.
Here within the symbol itself is the refutation that this
"absorption" is annihilation, as ineptly interpreted by the Western
Religionist.  Study the six-pointed star produced by combining
these two triangles.  Note carefully that thus intertwin ed they
form a SINGLE figure, yet each retains i ts own identity and the
outline is clearly discernible. The star is emblematic of the
complete harmonic relation between the positive and receptive
forces of nature.  It depicts the "action and reaction" of Oriental
religions.  To the Mason it may well demonstrate the Perfect
Ashlar, placed in "that proper position," in "that house not made
with hands, eternal in the heavens."

The "Rough Ashlar" is a stone as taken from the quarry in its rude
and natural state.  "The Perfect Ashlar" is a stone made ready by
the hands of the workmen, to be adjusted by the working tools of
the Fellow-craft. * * * By the Rough Ashlar we are reminded of our
rude and imperfect state by nature; by the Perfect Ashlar of the
state of perfection at which we hope to arrive by a virtuous
education, our own endeavours, and the blessing of God."

The first thing that occurs to one in contemplating the Ashlars is
the incorrect symbology in most of our modern Lodge rooms, where a
Rough Ashlar and a Perfect Ashlar are exhibited, consisting of a
rough stone and a polished stone.  These stones are invariably
oblong in shape.  To carry out, properly, the intended symbology
they should be perfect cubes.

"By the Rough Ashlar we are reminded of our rude and imperfect
state by nature." This statement is a direct contradiction to the
claim made by the Apprentice in answer to the first question asked
him in his proficiency examination.  Therein he claimed his "state
by nature" was "one favored of God, in Completeness of being," far
from being "rude and imperfect." It is also at variance with Sacred
Scripture, which informs us that man's ORIGINAL STATE "by nature"
was PERFECT, prior to man's fall from that high estate as depicted
in the story of the Garden of Eden.  As encountered in our daily
lives, man's state is admittedly "rude and imperfect." By erroneous
thinking, man applies the Universal Destructive Principle and
brings himself to a state which may be correctly so described.

It is a universal truth that the negative is but the absence of the
positive, and man's present state is evidence of this fact.  It is
also illuminating proof of the creative power of mind.  Man's
tendency to think limitations, illness, war and poverty, has
created for him the things he visualizes, in STRICT ACCORDANCE WITH
LAW, and brought him to his PRESENT "rude and imperfect state."

The Perfect Ashlar is the same stone, "AFTER it has been made ready
for the builder by the hands of the workmen." The meaning is thinly
veiled in allegory.  Apparently the design was not to make this
lesson too difficult of discernment.  The "workman" is the
subjective mind, breaking off the "rough corners)l at the prompting
of the objective mind, "the better to fit us for the builder's
According to the quotation, three things are essential.  First,
acquire a "virtuous education"; second, it is "only by our own
endeavours" and lastly, "by the blessing of God." Again the "Ask,
Seek, and Knock" is evident.  We alone must do the "educating." WE
must do the "striving." We cannot expect Universal Law to DO FOR US
that which, by its very nature, it can only DO THROUGH US.  Only
after we have done our part, and of our own volition have helped
ourselves, may we expect the "blessing of God" - the w orking of

"A Lodge is situated due East and West * * *. " Peoples who
worshipped the Sun faced the East, where the physical light first
appeared each morning.  This is the "rational explanation" of the
Master rising in the East.  However, the esoteric significance of
this custom has its origin in occult philosophy.  This philosophy
is of the Great Masters of India, who are said to have first
discerned and promulgated it.  It teaches the essential truth of
man's being, and this knowledge of the East travelled westward with
man's migration to the West.  Therefore the ancients "looked to the
East" as the source of INTELLECTUAL and SPIRITUAL LIGHT, just as we
look to the East or to the Master of the Lodge for Masonic
enLIGHTenment.  In passing, the writer cannot resist the
opportunity to remark what glorious progress Freemasonry could
enjoy if the Masters of our Lodges understood Masonic symbology,
and fitted themselves to be IN FACT one of the "lesser lights" of
the Lodge over which each presides.  The Craft might not the n look
to them in vain for enlightenment.

"Freemasons of the present day dedicate theirs [Lodges] to Saint
John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist, the two eminent
patrons of Masonry; and since their time there is represented in
every regular and well governed Lodge a certain point within a
circle embordered by two perpendicular lines, representing these
two saints; and upon the vertex of the circle rests the Holy Bible.
The point represents the individual brother; the circle the
boundary line of his duty, beyond which he is never to suffer his
passions, prejudices, or interests to betray him.  In going around
this circle we necessarily touch upon these two lines, as well as
upon the Holy Bible; and while a Freemason keeps himself
circumscribed within their precepts, it is impossible that he
should materially err."

The point within a circle is an ancient Egyptian sign for the sun
and Osiris.  It originally had no connection with the two
perpendicular lines, and most certainly not with the Holy Bible
upon the vertex.  Neither was the point in anyway connected with an
"individual." On some ancient monuments a point within a circle is
shown between two upright serpents, which were at times
conventionalized into two straight lines; however, the ascribing of
these lines to the Saints John is too far-fetched to be tenable.
The sign is astrological; possibly the three points which are
encountered in "going around the circle" have reference to the
three positions of the sun described in the opening of a Lodge by
the three principal officers.  This is purely speculation on the
part of the writer and I have no data to substantiate it.

Pike, commenting upon the symbology in Morals  and Dogma, states:
"It is said by some, with a nearer approach to interpretation, that
the point within the circle represents God in the centre of the
Universe. * * * In the Kaballah the point is Yod, the creative
energy, of God, irradiating with light the circular space which
God, the universal light, left vacant, wherein to create the
worlds, by withdrawing His substance of light back on all sides
from one point."

As the point is interpreted in some instances to represent Deity in
the midst of His Universe, so may it symbolize His "image and
likeness," man, in the centre of his universe, the vast expanse of
which is the only "boundary" or "limitation" placed upon him.  From
this man may learn that the possibilities of human evolution are as
boundless as infinity, the Universe itself.  If we must account for
the two parallel lines on either side of the circle, let them
remind us that man's evolution must be between th e two columns,
Boaz and Jachin. This evolution, this progress, must be of PERSONAL
CHOICE and it must conform to UNIVERSAL LAW.

This explanation purposely excludes the Holy Bible and the Saints
John, separating them from a symbolism of which they have no part.
The original introduction of the Saints John into Masonic symbology
was astrological.  Exactly how interpreted and how used has been
obscured by time, lack of written records and ignorance of
astrology on the part of those who have handed down the symbology.
St. John's Day, celebrated December 27th, is near the winter
solstice (December 22nd). Undoubtedly this has some conne ction
with the material phenomenon of the sun at the furthermost southern
point, and the shortest day of the year.

A peculiar feature of Saint John's the Baptist Day is that it is
claimed to be his actual birthday.  Usually the "Saint's Day" of
other saints is the day of their death, looked upon as the "day of
birth" into a better life.  It is most unlikely that any evidence
exists for this date, and it appears as arbitrary.  Such being the
case, it cannot be termed coincidence that it is named as June
24th, or within two days of the summer solstice June 22nd.
Attention is also directed to the fact that from that date ( in the
northern hemisphere) the length of the day decreases.  In John
3:30, John the Baptist is quoted as saying: "He must increase but I
must decrease." Again the reader is reminded of the three positions
of the sun described by the officers of the Lodge in the opening
ceremonies.  If taken in conjunction with the four (apparent)
orbital positions of the sun a vast field of speculation is opened
up. This, however, is beyond the province of the pr esent work, and
must be left to such further thought as the r eader cares to devote
to it.

Prior to the sixteenth century Saint John the Baptist was the only
patron saint of Freemasonry, Saint John the Evangelist being
introduced subsequent to that time.  Dr. Dalcho says: "The stern
integrity of Saint John the Baptist, which induced him to forego
every minor consideration in discharging the obligations he owed to
God; the unshaken firmness with which he met martyrdom rather than
betray his duty to his Master; his steady reproval of vice, and
continued preaching of repentance ;ind virtue, make him a fit
patron of the Masonic institution." Mackey says of Saint John the
Evangelist: "His constant admonition, in his epistles, to the
cultivation of brotherly love, and the mystical nature of his
Apocalyptic visions, have been, perhaps, the principal reasons for
the veneration paid him by the craft."

The closing paragraphs of this lecture: "Mother Earth alone of all
the elements having never proved unfriendly to man," deals with the
material man and material conditions.  It is appropriate that in
the lecture of the MATERIAL DEGREE of Freemasonry the MOST MATERIAL
OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS is stressed.  The earth is spoken of as the
"kindly provider" and "sustainer" and finally, "when at last he is
called to pass through the 'dark valley of the shadow of death,'
she once more receives him, and piously covers his remains within
her bosom.  This admonishes us that from Earth we came, and to
Earth we must shortly return."

This is a dissonant note, contributed by some "inexpert player" in
the great orchestra which is Masonic Philosophy.  It is entirely
out of harmony with the profound teaching of the Mysteries, the
true parent of Freemasonry.  The Mysteries and, correctly
interpreted, Freemasonry, teach the candidate concerning the
physical and material, not with the view of impressing upon him
"that from Earth he came and to Earth he must shortly return." The
object in teaching him of the material is that he shall make his b
ody into a fitting habitation for the soul, that the material may
serve as a solid foundation for his psychical and spiritual

According to the teaching of the Mysteries, insofar as we know
them, physical death was but an incident in man's experience, no
more important than any other physical incident.  Alan's present
attitude toward death is but further evidence of how far he has
shayed bona the truth regarding himself.  The Mysteries' only
interest in death of the physical body was to teach man that it was
inevitable, and NOT TO BE FEARED.  The profound lesson of the
Mysteries was how man might live his IMMORTAL LIFE, of which th is
life IS A DEFINITE PART, in conformity with the Constructive



"Thus he shewed me: and, behold, the Lord stood upon a wall made by
a plumb-line, with a plumb-line in his hand.  And the Lord said
unto me, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A plumb-line.  Then
said the Lord, Behold, I will set a plumb-line in the midst of my
people Israel; I will not again pass by them any more."

-Amos VII; 7-8

AS IN the preceding degree, we should continue to carefully analyze
words whereby we may arrive at the exact meaning intended.
"FELLOW" - "Companion or associate; one of the same kind, or in the
same position with others-an equal.  "CRAFT" - in the sense used -
is a contraction of "CRAFTSMAN," who is defined as "one who
practices a certain trade, especially a skilled and artistically
inclined worker."

In the light of the foregoing, a "FELLOWCRAFT" may be defined as "a
companion or associate of others in the same position, practising a
certain trade, and being especially skilled and artistically

One who has not learned the spiritual meaning of the degree of
Entered Apprentice, and applied the knowledge in his daily life,
has not attained to a level of spiritual consciousness where he may
comprehend the lesson of the degree of "Fellow-craft" and benefit
therefrom.  In the language of the Lodge, he has "NOT made suitable
proficiency in the preceding degree."

In commenting on the Mysteries is discussed the emphasis which was
placed on the necessity of "making suitable proficiency in the
preceding degree" before the neophyte could advance.  Here a
similarity is discovered.  In addition to the questions asked in
the preceding degree, the interrogator demands to know if the
candidate has made the necessary progress.  In early times, when
all business was transacted in the Entered Apprentice Lodge and
Apprentices might attend those meetings, an Apprentice might rema
in in that degree for a year before being "passed." Thus he learned
the workings of the Lodge, became acquainted with its peculiar
language and such of the symbology as he could understand.  He
truly made "suitable proficiency." Our modern Lodge might well
return to such practice.  It is true that such procedure might
result in less "MEMBERS" but, inversely, the order might thereby
make" more "MASONS," which is the avowed intent.

The Scripture quoted in this degree was not taken from the Bible
merely by chance because it mentions a plumb-line, one of the
working tools of a Fellow-craft.  As in all things Masonic, there
is a definite reason for this particular passage of Scripture.  It
may be more understandable if we quote from another translation,
rather than the King James version which is used in the Lodge.

In 1853 Rabbi Isaac Leeser, feeling the need for a direct
translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew to
English, for the benefit of the many Jews who no longer could read
Hebrew, completed such a work.  This passage is hereafter quoted
from his translation, together with his comments on the meaning of
the passage.  "Thus he shewed me: and behold the Lord was standing
upon a wall (made) by a plumb-line, and in his hand was a
plumb-line.  And the Lord said unto me, what dost thou see, Amos?
And I said a plumb-line.  Then said the Lord, behold, I will set a
plumb-line in the midst of my people Israel; I will not farther
indulge them anymore."

Leeser's comments: "Meaning as a builder erects his wall straight
by the plummet, so shall Israel be dealt with after the strict line
of justice, with no longer indulgence for their crimes.  No farther
indulge them, more specific than pass by them anymore, or overlook
their transgressions."

The Entered Apprentice degree is material.  Instructions on the
psychical plane not having as yet been received, the Apprentice
cannot be held wholly accountable for his conduct.  He is granted
a, certain amount of "indulgence," and some of his errors of both
commission and omission are "passed by" or overlooked.  Now a
definite change is to take place.  He is given additional
instruction and information, intellectual reasons which his mind
can weigh and either accept or reject.  He will be PERSONALLY ACCOU
NTABLE for his future actions in the light of his newly acquired
knowledge.  Therefore he will be dealt with by the "strict line of
justice." His sins will not be overlooked.  "I will not again pass
by them anymore."

Even the preparation of the second degree is symbolical.  While the
first degree pertains to the development of the physical man, the
second deals with a different side of his nature, the psychical.
The candidate enters this degree, as far as the inner man is
concerned, in the "same condition" as in the preceding degree.  Not
satisfied with the light, or knowledge, he has so far obtained, "of
his own free will and accord," he gives the "knock" which will
cause the door to be opened for him to begin his jou rney for
"further light" in Freemasonry.  We have agreed that "Masonry is
religion." We have learned that religion is "the recognition of
man's relation to a divine superhuman power to whom obedience and
reverence is due," as well as "effort of man to attain the goodness
of God." By emphasizing this definition of religion we impress our
minds with what we are ACTUALLY REQUESTING when we say we wish

The candidate is received, as stated in the ritual, to symbolize
the complete union of the physical with the psychical.  The
physical is typified by the "horizontal line" of the still
incomplete triangle, whereas the psychical is symbolized by the
"perpendicular." When the horizontal is perfectly "level" and the
perpendicular is "plumb," the resultant meeting is a true
"right-angle." They meet upon the square.

Whenever one observes the "square and compasses" and discovers that
one point of the compasses is elevated above the square, he should
remember that Masonry is a progressive science.  MORE is implied
than is told.  This position of the compasses indicates NOT so much
the negative fact told the candidate as the positive fact that he
HAS recovered partial light and the spiritual is actually coming to
the fore, that he no longer is wholly concerned with the material.

The candidate is asked a question at a certain point in the
initiation, and a specific reply is given for him.  The real
answer, concealed within that answer, is a desire to go from the
material things pertaining to the Entered Apprentice to those
things psychical to be learned in the degree of Fellow-craft.

As we are told in the Bible, Jachin is one of the pillars of the
Temple of Solomon.  It denotes Universal Law.  No progress can be
made on any plane of existence except it be in accordance with the
Universal Law.  The candidate is "entering the Temple." As an
Entered Apprentice he gained admission by "personal choice"; now he
is confronted with the fact that "personal choice" is not enough,
it must also be in conformity to LAW.  It must be regular.

In the twelfth chapter of judges is related an historical happening
which is also highly allegorical, and the word Shibboleth plays a
prominent part in that allegory.  In a deeper sense it is so used
in this degree, but that explanation would entail Biblical
interpretation and we are not here attempting such a pretentious

We have a modern expression used to indicate the utter lack of
harmony between oneself and another when our thinking is so far
apart that there is no common meeting ground.  We say, "We do not
speak the same language." So it is with "Shibboleth." It is more
than a word; it is in one word the expression of an existing
condition.  One NOT a "Fellow-craft," in the fullest meaning of the
term, can immediately be detected for he "cannot frame to pronounce
it aright." His thinking is so foreign that, to emphasize our
meaning with the modern expression, "he does not speak the same

The ancient Hebrew Priest in conferring the blessing, extended his
right hand, palm downward, over the heads of the congregation.  He
held his left hand partially aloft.  The left hand aloft signified
he was RECEIVING the blessing from God, the right hand outstretched
that he was PASSING the blessing on to the congregation.  It must
be taken into consideration that the Hebrew Priest, unlike the
Roman Catholic Priest, was NEVER claimed to be THE REPRESENTATIVE
OF GOD ON EARTH.  He was only the intermediary b etween God and the
Children of Israel, the "go-between." When the locale of the
Fellow-craft degree is recalled, it may be helpful to our
explanation if we refer to the Priest as the MIDDLE-man.

This is the psychic degree.  The ancients taught that mind was the
result of the entrance of the spiritual into the material.  The
Scripture used in the Entered Apprentice degree states: "There the
Lord commanded the blessing, even life for ever more." This
blessing was symbolically received by the one hand and conferred
with the other.  To have "life for ever more" necessitates
knowledge, and the duty of the intellect is to gather and assay
that knowledge.

Attention is especially directed to the consistency with which the
candidate's position, the Square and Compasses, the apron and the
working tools, all harmoniously reveal the one great Truth in this
degree.  The Square is of the utmost importance to the Fellow-craft
and, IN ANY MANNER MADE USE OF WHATEVER, it signifies the same
perfect union of the physical and psychical later discussed in
connection with the working tools.

No longer "a bearer of burdens," the Fellow-craft need not wear his
apron to protect his clothing.  He has departed from the material;
he no longer need bear burdens.  The candidate represents man
rising, in the process of evolution, from the level where he was
dependent on the brute-force of his physical body, to the use of
his mind.  Mind being creative, he may now, to the extent of his
knowledge, create his own conditions.  He wears his apron in a
manner to symbolize this fact.

All aprons seen in Lodges are not properly made - some are slightly
oblong.  The correct specifications would call for a perfect square
of approximately fourteen inches, surmounted by a triangle whose
base is the exact length of one side of the apron and whose apex
forms a ninety degree angle.  When the flap is turned down it
should appear as a triangle within a square. This symbolizes the
spiritual within the material.  Hereby man begins the evolution
which will eventually end in his assuming the likeness of his
Creator.  Thus the symbology of the apron repeats and verifies that
of the Square and Compasses.

Modern educators stress the fact that in teaching in the classroom
the results are largely dependent upon "the approach to the
subject." They explain that different subjects must be approached
in different manners.  This is equally true in Masonry.  The
Apprentice degree is material, that of the Fellow-craft is mental.
It is logical that the subjects should be approached differently.
One does not approach the psychical in the same manner as he
approaches the material; they are on two separate planes of ex
istence.  As we have seen, "one does not even speak the same
language" on these two planes.  Furthermore, just as the ancients
claimed the left side of man was the weaker and the right side the
stronger and more important, so is the material of less import to
man's life than his psychical existence.

Now for "a more noble and glorious" explanation of the working
tools than is given in the "rational explanation": Man is a triune
being composed of Body, Soul and Spirit.  The plumb typifies the
Soul, and is used to "erect perpendiculars." So it symbolizes the
upward aspirations of the Soul toward God.  The body is that
"level" which "stretches along the level of time." In the perfect
man we are building the soul, or plumb, must be joined to the body,
or level, by a right angle triangle, for the juncture of the two
lines must form a "perfect square."

Another emphasis regarding the working tools of a Fellow-craft in
contradistinction to those of the Apprentice is that the latter are
preparatory tools. The TWENTY-FOUR INCH GAUGE and the COMMON GAVEL
are used by "operative masons" AT THE QUARRIES to PREPARE stones.
"The Rough Ashlar is a stone as taken from the quarry in its rude
and natural state.  The Perfect Ashlar is a stone made ready by the
hands of the workman to be adjusted by the working tools of the
FELLOWCRAFT." The "Rough Ashlar" is measured w ith the "twenty-four
inch gauge"; its rough corners are broken off with blows from the
"common gavel"; and as the "Perfect Ashlar" it is sent from the
quarries to the building site of the Temple where the
"Fellow-craft, with his tools, the "plumb, the square and the
level, adjusts it into the structure.

Reviewing the discussion of the Apprentice's tools, we find the
"common gavel" is used to "divest our hearts and consciences of all
the vices and superfluities of life, thereby fitting our MINDS as
living stones * * *." Thus is seen the "Rough Ashlar" in transition
to the "Perfect Ashlar" - not two stones but one, and that stone is
the individual.

In the proficiency examination the Fellow-craft is not asked if he
is a Mason.  This question is differently phrased, and his answer
is significant.  A square is an angle of ninety degrees or a
"perfect angle," and it is consistent that a Fellow-craft should
refer to it.  Since the second degree deals with the psychical, and
as it is the purpose of the Fellow-craft to unite the physical with
the psychical in the perfect union, the degree of his attainment
may be measured, or he "may be tried," by the perfec t right angle.
Hence the square is not only one of the principal working tools of
his profession but is the logical instrument whereby to measure his

As viewed from a material standpoint the symbology is exact.  A
ninety degree angle may be obtained by using a square.  It may also
be made with the two other tools of the Fellow-craft.  Using the
"level" to lay a horizontal, and the "plumb" to erect a
perpendicular, a perfect angle is formed.  Phenomena that are true
can be demonstrated by trial and error; and the necessary tools to
test and prove his findings are furnished the Fellow-craft in the
"level" and the "plumb." He may use them to demonstrate the truth
of the "square."


Middle Chamber Lecture

"We are always dealing with creative mind power.  With infallible
precision it becomes the shape of our mental patterns and the form
of our habit-systems, and then, Oh most wonderful of all, it
becomes character, conduct and experience on the visible plane of
our practical lives. * * * I created my past; I create my today; I
can read and I will create my tomorrow with the tools of my mind as
I work today in the workshop of creation which is within me."
-Harvey Hardman

The second section of this degree (Fellow-craft) has reference to
the origin of the institution, and views Masonry under two
denominations - OPERATIVE and SPECULATIVE.  By Operative Masonry we
allude to a proper application of useful rules of architecture,
whence a structure will derive figure, strength and beauty. * * *
It demonstrates that a fund of science and industry is implanted in
man for the best, most salutary and beneficent purposes. * * * By
Speculative Masonry we learn to subdue the passions, ac t upon the
square, keep a tongue of good report, maintain secrecy and practice
charity.  It is so far interwoven with religion as to lay us under
obligations to pay rational homage to the Deity which at once
constitutes our duty and our happiness. * * * WE WORK IN
OPERATIVE AND SPECULATIVE." The foregoing quotation from the
lecture is the "rational explanation" of the difference between
Oper ative and Speculative. Reference to "our ancient brethre n"
usually is construed to apply to those "ancient brethren" of the
time of King Solomon.  More correctly it refers to the early Lodge
of England. There, history informs us that, for various reasons,
Operative Lodges or guilds began the practice of admitting certain
"Gentlemen" who were not craftsmen.  These members were termed
speculative in contradistinction to the craftsmen members who
actually worked at their trade. Undoubtedly it is to these
Speculative Masons we are indebted for the development of the
ethical analogies of the working tools, as well as the introduction
of the deeper philosophy of Freemasonry.

Webster defines "OPERATE": "To perform a work of labour; TO PRODUCE
AN EFFECT." "SPECULATE": "To contemplate, to see mentally; to
ponder a subject in its different aspects and relations; mediate;
definition of these two words are contained BOTH the exoteric and
the esoteric explanations.

The "rational explanation" given in the lecture is the exoteric
explanation.  Namely, the Operative Mason "performs a work or
labour." The Speculative Mason "contemplates, sees mentally;
ponders the subject in its different aspects and relations."

Seemingly of purpose the ritual conceals the real difference.  This
is consistent with the practices of the ancient Mysteries, for the
Mysteries established the concept that "knowledge is power," and
they veiled their wisdom in allegory and symbolism so power might
not be acquired by those not "worthy and well qualified."
Freemasonry adopts this procedure in presenting its truths.  They
are carefully concealed behind a "veil of allegory" and are
"illustrated by symbols." They are not only veiled from the "c
owan," the outsider, but are so obscured from the Mason who is
content to be a Mason by virtue of membership rather than a Mason
"in fact," by virtue of his KNOWLEDGE.

The esoteric distinction is that Modern Masonry "speculates" on the
great truths and, because of lack of knowledge of the secret
doctrine, "theorizes from conjectures WITHOUT SUFFICIENT EVIDENCE."
(The apron lecture of the first degree contains evidence of as
much).  To "operate" in Masonry one must know its philosophy and
put it into practice. To "operate" is to "PRODUCE AN EFFECT," and
until he produces a RECOGNIZED EFFECT he remains but a "Speculative

We are informed in the Bible that at the entrance to Solomon's
Temple were two columns. The one on the right named "Jachin"; the
one on the left, "Boaz." "Jachin" is said to mean: "He shall
establish," presumably alluding to God's promise to David to
establish his kingdom. "Boaz" is interpreted: "strength in it."
Coupled, they are: "in strength shall He establish." This is but a
perfunctory explanation.

Thomas Troward, in Bible Mystery and Bible Meaning, presents a more
illuminating explanation of the meaning of these two Hebrew words.
"The English 'J' often stands for the Oriental 'Y.' The name
'Jachin' is therefore 'Yahkin,' which is an intensified form of the
word 'Yak' or 'one'; thus signifying first the principle of unity
as the foundation of all things, and then the mathematical element
throughout the universe, since all numbers are evolved from the
ONE, and under certain methods of treatment will al ways resolve
themselves again into it.  But the mathematical element is the
element of measurement, proportion, and relation.  It is not the
Living Life, but only the recognition of the proportional
adjustments which the Life gives rise to. To balance the
mathematical element we require the Vital element, and this element
finds its most perfect expression in that wonderful complex of
Thought, Feeling and Volition, which we call Personality.  The
pillar 'Ja chin' is therefore balanced by the pillar 'Boaz,' a name
connected with the root of the word 'awaz' or 'Voice.' * * * Speech
is the distinguishing characteristic of Personality." Judge Troward
points out that "ONE," or the "mathematical element," is LAW, while
"Boaz" typifies "Personality" or "personal choice." Hence the two
columns symbolize the Great Universal Law and Personal Choice.

These columns at the entrance of the Temple were not necessary, for
any material support, but presented a symbolical truth. The Temple
of Solomon was the house of God, and the only reason for entering
that House was to come into His presence. It is discovered that the
only way to enter the Temple is to pass between these two columns,
the one "Jachin" - "LAW," the other "Boaz" "PERSONAL CHOICE." This
is the truth the columns symbolize to the Fellowcraft.  To enter
the presence of God, it is not enough to rec ognize His existence;
one must DESIRE to be in His presence, he must come of "his own
free will and accord." Even this is not sufficient.  When the
objective mind realizes the urge to be in God's presence one is
faced with the existence of the other column "Jachin," the constant

Pike, in Morals and Dogma states: "It is customary, in lodges of
the York Rite, to see a celestial globe on one [column] and a
terrestrial globe on the other; but these are not warranted, if the
object be to imitate the original two columns of the Temple." In
the light of judge Troward's explanation of the two columns, it is
more than ever evident these globes have no place in the symbology
of this degree.

The ritual mentions "three steps." It claims they symbolize the
three degrees.  There is also an explanation that the three steps
refer to the three officers of the Lodge.  There are many other
"threes" prominent in Masonry: "three words of three syllables";
"Three Grand Masters;" "three raps"; two groups of lights, each
containing "Three lights"; "Three gates to the Temple"; "Three
sides of a triangle." All of these have peculiar significance in
some specific applications, but all stem from the fundamental
symbology of the three aspects of Deity, or the three planes of
human existence: Physical, Psychical and Spiritual; and, regardless
of their specific symbology in a given instance, can be traced back
to these original trinities: the one "above," the other "below."

The "five steps" represent the five orders of architecture and the
five human senses.  Note how the ritual stresses the fact that in
each instance "three" are most important.  Of the orders of
architecture it is said: "The first three alone, however, show
invention and particular character, and essentially differ from
each other; the two others having nothing but what is borrowed, and
differ only accidentally." After naming the five human senses it
continues: "The first THREE of which are deemed peculiarly
essential among Freemasons * * * ." Again, we have the three
component parts of the complete man, the physical, psychical and
spiritual, represented by the "three columns, which were the
principal supports of the Temple, as they are likewise the support
of man. "WISDOM, STRENGTH and BEAUTY": "Wisdom to contrive" (the
mental); "Strength to support" (the physical); "Beauty to adorn"
(the spiritual).

Ascending the "five steps" is "getting above" the five human
senses, attaining the level beyond the material.  When "our trust
is in God, our faith is well founded"; we have spiritual guidance
and need not rely on the material guidance of the five senses.
With the three especially emphasized we may recognize a brother,
but the TRUE Fellow-craft has attained a level where he may
dispense with these material assurances, and has discovered other
means of recognition.

When we have surmounted these five steps "we are duly and truly
prepared" to start the ascent of the remaining "seven steps." The
ritual alludes to them as symbolical of the "Seven Liberal Arts and
Sciences." Also the "seven steps" have a deep occult meaning which
we will merely mention here.  They are the vibrations producing
colour and sound. There are seven colours in the spectrum, of which
"three" are called "primary." There are seven notes in the musical
scale, "three" of which compose the principal ch ord of the key.
The musical scale completely bears out the creative process of
evolution. When a scale is played we ascend to another higher
scale, at a higher rate of vibration, and repeat (continue to do
that which has been done).  Herein may be hidden the significance
for the lecture urging a "study of music."

The "SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES," in the order mentioned in
fall into two natural divisions of "THREE" and "FOUR." When
analyzed in the order given they appear to be "progressive." A
knowledge of grammar is necessary before we can even think
intelligently. Rhetoric is essential if we wish to convey our
thoughts to others, and, lastly, by logic, we present our thoughts
in reas oned and systematic classification.

In the group of "four" we find, first, arithmetic as the basis of
the other three, and the progression is evident when it is realized
arithmetic is necessary to an understanding of geometry, and
geometry is essential to any understanding of astronomy, Arithmetic
is also the foundation of Rhythm, and rhythm, as applied to music,
is regularity or flow of movement.  The "notes" of written music
are nothing but hieroglyphs indicating rate and duration of
vibration.  Therefore, without arithmetic the perpetuatio n of the
great music of the world, by committing it to writing, would have
been impossible.

The liberal arts and sciences as so designated in the ritual are
modern and therefore misleading.  Arithmetic and astronomy bring to
mind specific sciences, and we are agreed on their definition, but
they were not so defined by the ancients, and therefore their
modern definitions will give the wrong impression.  We must view
them in the same light as the ancients if we hope to arrive at
their intended symbolical meaning.

Ancient Greek is referred to as a "dead language," yet it is modern
compared to the age of the Secret Doctrine.  As "arithmetic" is a
Greek word, this particular science, obviously, could not have been
known by that name to those unfamiliar with the language.  Webster
defines arithmetic as: "the science of reckoning, the science of
numbers, the art of computing or reckoning by figures."

It is as "the science of numbers" that it holds Masonic
significance. Before numbers were used, letters of the various
alphabets of antiquity served the purpose. (Do not confuse
numerical VALUE of a letter with its numerical POSITION in the
alphabet.) As an example: with our Arabic numerals we write 311; by
changing the position of the numerals we can write 113 or 131.  In
Hebrew, Aleph ■is 1i; Yod ■is 10; Shin ■ is 300.  If the Jew wished
to write 311 he could not do so for he had no 11.  He wrote ■■■
whic h literally translated is "one" AND "ten" AND "three hundred."
(Hebrew is read from right to left.) Regardless of how transposed,
these three letters always total three hundred eleven (311), for
the value of each letter remains constant.  The Hebrew numerical
system must be kept in mind in any study of Masonic numerology.  It
also holds true of Biblical numerology, and accounts for the
translation of numbers such as "three thousand and three hundred
overseers of the work on the Temple" rather than thir ty-th ree
hundred, as it would be written in modern phraseology.

"ASTRONOMY" and "ASTROLOGY" were not differentiated by the
ancients; they were one great science.  The WORD "astronomy" is
fairly modern and came into use about the fifteenth century.
Thenceforth it has designated the science which treats of the
celestial bodies, their magnitudes, motions and relationships one
with another. "Astronomy" connotes none of the implications of the
word "Astrology." As we today understand the meaning of "Astrology"
it is the science by which the effect of the celestial bodies up on
human affairs is determined. Obviously it is "Astrology" and not
"Astronomy" which is recommended to the Mason as a subject of
study.  I say "obviously" because ancient secret doctrine, which is
concealed in Masonic allegory and symbolism, teaches EVOLUTION as
surely as Darwin ever taught it; REINCARNATION and the LAW OF
NECESSITY or KARMA, which are included in, and are a part of, the
teaching of scientific astrology.  Neither need the Chr istian
Mason shudder on being told Masonry embraces such teaching . If he
feels any repugnance at the thought it is because those who today
profess those teachings, such as the Buddhist and the Hindu, have
distorted these Divine truths as greatly as Christianity has the
sublime teaching of the Master Jesus.

There is no NEW religion. There is but ONE RELIGION. The ancient
Hebrew believed in evolution, reincarnation and karma, as well as
astrology. That book we call the "Holy Bible" is still full of
references to all three, in spite of the fact that much has been
expurgated.  Had it not suited the purposes of the Roman Church
centuries ago to disregard that portion of the teaching of the
Bible, the Christian religion today would doubtless teach these
fundamentals; and, instead of being at variance with material
science, the two would go forward hand in hand for the greater
glory of God and the enlightenment of the human race. It was but to
preserve these truths for "future generations" that Masonry itself
was perpetuated.  Here again, however, one is faced with the
difficulties of the English language as a vehicle for the
expression of the desired thought, for the word "Astrology" is in
bad repute.  It is immediately associated in mind with "fortune tel
ling" and is discredited as a science by that association. Bef ore
turning from the subject with disdain, however, one should be
mindful of the ancient saying: "FOOLS DERIDE, PHILOSOPHERS

There are actually seven interpretations of Masonic symbolism, or
more correctly, seven means of interpretation.  They are based on
the two divisions of "THREE" and "FOUR," and all fall into one of
the three classifications: PHYSICAL, PSYCHICAL or SPIRITUAL.  By
the use of the first three of the "Liberal Arts and Sciences" the
teaching can be conveyed verbally or in writing.

1. By the actual words of the ritual and lectures.

2. By nomenclature, inasmuch as all words, passwords and names used
in the ritual conceal hidden meaning.

By the use of the last four mentioned sciences the doctrine is

3. By arithmetic, that is by "numbers," which we may define as
Masonic numerology.

4. By geometry, that is by "signs," which are described as right
angles, horizontals and perpendiculars.  By designs, the floor
work, which if actually drawn upon a trestle-board will exhibit
some very interesting facts.

5. By music, or more correctly, the science of vibration and
harmony.  Mozart exemplifies the three degrees in the opera The
Magic Flute, and reputedly wrote the opera's score after having
been a Mason for years. The setting is Egyptian, but the
well-informed Mason cannot fail to recognize the Masonic

6. By astronomy, or more correctly "ASTROLOGY." Its great
importance to Masonry is inferred when the form of a Lodge is
discussed. The ritual recites: "IT IS SAID TO BE of so vast
dimensions to denote that a Freemason's charity should know no
bounds." Note, that as usual, the wording is indefinite, the phrase
"IT IS SAID TO BE" is used; it does not state, "IT IS." The
ancients believed that everything on the material plane was a
counterpart of something on the spiritual plane, therefore they
stated: "As abo ve so below." The Lodge below is like the Lodge
above.  This, too, has double meaning.  There is the Spiritual
Lodge spoken of as "the "Lodge on High," but it also has reference
to the actual physical heavens, as the geometry of the Lodge is
that of the Astronomer. Only six methods of interpretation have
been enumerated, and close observation reveals they are either
physical or psychical.  What of the seventh? All that has been
recounted is but additional "rational explanation," even though it
may be more e xplicit and delve more deeply than the lectures of
the Lodge room.  These preliminary explanations are a "sort of"
phrenic placing oneself "in that proper position" to perceive the
seventh and Spiritual exposition of Freemasonry.

The Bible states: "In six days God created the heavens and the
earth and rested on the seventh day." The literal translation of
the Hebrew text is "in six days God created the heavens and the
earth and on the seventh day continued to do the work He had done."
In other words, "creation" is a continuous process of evolution.

The Biblical statement gives us evidence of the creative power of
mind. The "three steps" are the material, mental and spiritual. We
have seen that the five steps are the five human senses, which are
of use only on the material plane. As we mount these "five steps"
we ascend above the material to the mental plane, from which
vantage point we begin the ascent of the remaining "seven steps."
These "seven steps" typify the creative process, (1) the six days
of labour and the seventh when God continued to do th at which He
had done, which are abidingly continuous. Thought is God's creative
process, hence man must create by that same power.

We have now arrived at a representation of the "MIDDLE CHAMBER OF
KING SOLOMON'S TEMPLE." We have also arrived at the most
interesting and widely discussed feature of the entire Masonic
structure, excepting only the allegorical story contained in the
second section of the third degree.  I term it the most
interesting, with the one exception, because, like the story of the
Ancient Master, it departs entirely from recorded historic fact and
has no scriptural authority to substantiate it; most dis-

(1) For another interpretation of the "Seven Steps" see The Royal
Arch - Its Hidden Meaning, page 86.

cussed, because it has been one of the subjects which has intrigued
Masonic authorities of the past, and about which much has been

The winding stairs and the middle chamber are described in 1 Kings
VI: 5, 6, 8. "And against the wall of the house he built chambers
round about, against the walls of the house round about, both of
the temple and of the oracle: and he made chambers round about: the
nethermost chamber was five cubits broad, and the middle was six
cubits broad, and the third was seven cubits broad: for without in
the wall of the house he made narrowed rests round about, that the
beams should not be fastened in the walls of th e house. * * * The
door for the middle chamber was in the right side of the house: and
they went up with winding stairs into the middle chamber." This is
the sum total of the Biblical light which can be directed on the
"middle chamber."

In his Encyclopedia of Freemasonry Mackey quotes this same Biblical
passage and adds: "These chambers, after the Temple was completed,
served for the accommodation of the Priests, when upon duty; in
them they deposited their vestments and the sacred vessels.  But
the knowledge of the purpose to which the middle chamber was
appropriated while the Temple was in the course of construction is
only preserved in Masonic tradition.  This tradition is, however,
altogether mythical and symbolical in its character, * * * "

In conjunction with his explanation of the "winding stairs" he
states: "If we attempt to adopt it as a historical fact the
absurdity of its details stare us in the face, and wise men will
wonder at our credulity. Its inventors had no desire thus to impose
upon our folly, but offered it to us as a great philosophical myth;
they did not for a moment suppose that we would pass over its
sublime moral teachings to accept the allegorical as a historical
narrative without meaning, and WHOLLY IRRECONCILABLE WITH TH E
PROBABILITY. To suppose that eighty thousand craftsmen were weekly
paid in the narrow precincts of the Temple chambers is simply to
suppose an absurdity."

The origin of this allegory is obscured behind the veil of our
ignorance of early Masonic history.  As it stands it obviously is
not handed down to us from the Mysteries, yet the symbolism it
employs is the symbolism of the Mysteries.  Apparently its authors,
familiar with the meaning of the symbols, realizing the
incompleteness of the Masonic teaching without these symbols,
arbitrarily added the myth to the actual Biblical account of the
building of the Temple as the only logical means of bringing into
pla y these symbols of reward.

Again quoting from Mackey relative to the winding stairs which was
the means of gaining entrance to the middle chamber: "As a
Fellow-craft, he has advanced another step, and as the degree is
emblematic of youth, so it is here that the intellectual education
of the candidate begins." This is not inconsistent with our
contention that the second degree is psychical, but rather,
strongly corroborates that claim, for Mackey emphasizes that "it is
HERE that the intellectual education of the candidate begins."

Continuing Mackey: "And therefore, at the very spot which separates
the porch from the sanctuary, where childhood ends and manhood
begins, he finds stretching out before him a winding stair which
invites him, as it were, to ascend, and which, as the symbol of
discipline and instruction, teaches him that here must commence
Masonic labour - here be must enter upon those glorious though
difficult researches, the end of which is to be the possession of
divine truth.  The winding stairs begin after the candidate has
passed within the porch and between the pillars of strength and
establishment [we have also discovered them to be "personal choice"
and "law," which but adds strength to Mackey's exposition], as a
significant symbol to teach him that as soon as he has passed
beyond the years of irrational childhood, and commenced his
entrance upon manly life, the laborious task of self-improvement is
the first duty that is placed before him.  He cannot stand s till
if he would be worthy of his vocation; his destiny as a n immortal
being requires him to ascend, step by step, until the summit, where
the treasures of knowledge await him."

The "material" is the "outer door." The "psychical" is the "inner
door" which admits to the MENTAL PLANE OF BEING - the "MIDDLE
CHAMBER." The MIND is the controller of the body, the physical; it
is also the INSTRUMENT OF SPIRIT. Thus it is seen to be the
INTERMEDIARY between the physical and the spiritual; it is truly
the "middle chamber."

As much as is known of the Egyptian Mysteries indicates that their
primary initiation, or "first degree," dealt with the physical.
Only those proven worthy attained to the second degree, there being
enroled and actually accepted as neophytes. The reason for this
appears to be that many became discouraged during the long and
arduous physical ordeal of preparation and voluntarily resigned;
others, unable to "make the necessary proficiency," were thereby
debarred from the higher degrees.  This was of no seriou s
consequence, as none had as yet received any secret instruction
whereby any of the real secrets of the Mysteries had been revealed.
They were in a comparable position to an individual who might drop
out of Masonry after receiving the first degree.  True, he has some
knowledge of Freemasonry, but he can enlighten the profane world
very little as to the real secrets of Freemasonry. It is from such
as these that the little information we have of the M ysteries has
come down to us, coupled with veiled remarks of known Initiates
such as Jesus, Saint Paul, Plato and Pythagoras.

Having once been accepted, the neophyte was "bound to the
organization by a TWO-FOLD tie" and thenceforth received "wages" in
the form of his actual sustenance and the "knowledge" imparted to
him of a psychical and spiritual nature. These "wages" were
referred to as "corn, wine and oil," and some knowledge of
symbology is essential to an understanding of their subtle
"CORN, WINE and OIL are the Masonic elements of consecration,"
states Mackey, in his Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, and as he
explains: "The adoption of these symbols is supported by the
highest antiquity.  Corn, wine and oil were the most important
productions of Eastern countries; they constituted the wealth of
the people, and were esteemed as the supports of life and the means
of refreshment. David enumerates them as among the great blessings
that we enjoy, and speaks of them as 'wine that maketh glad the
heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine, and bread which
strengtheneth man's heart.' Psalm CIV: 14."

In that beautiful twenty-third Psalm, David again refers to corn,
or nourishment, oil and wine: "Thou preparest a table before me in
the midst of mine enemies: Thou anointest my head with oil, my cup
runneth over." To state that these three symbols denote "plenty,"
"health," and "peace" is the crassest kind of material explanation.
In fact it might be considered misleading were we not accustomed to
the Masonic fact that "within the Lodge" the Great Truths are not
revealed, and that we must seek elsewhere fo r such light as is not
therein revealed.

The ancients who worshipped the Sun as a god, or as a symbol of
God, considered all things yellow, golden colour, of the sun, as
pertaining to it; hence gold, brass and corn or grain, because of
their colour, were deemed sacred. Corn was one of the principal
foods; it was, to the devout, actually "nourishment from God," a
reward for obedience to His laws. In Oriental Philosophy Francis
Grant refers to the ancient symbolical reference to wine, thus:
"God was at once the Wine of life and the Wine Bearer." Of the
Great Sufi poet, Omar Khayyam, he says: "But few westerners have
ever glimmered that Omar's wine was not the wine of men, but the
ecstatic inflow of a religious mystic experience." While the time
of which Grant writes is a much later date than here discussed, the
Sufi poets borrowed their symbology from the earlier tim es.

In the ancient ceremony of crowning a king, his head was anointed
with oil by the officiating priest.  This oil was contained in a
flask, fashioned from the horn of a bull or ram, and carried in the
priest's girdle. The Jew, of course, considered the one so anointed
as ordained by Jehovah; the Pagan priest ordained in the name of
Taurus or Aries, depending on the horn from which the oil was

Here, then, is the true wage of the Fellow-craft: the corn which
nourishes his physical body, provided by the all-wise beneficence
of his Creator, truly a "gift from God"; oil, the refresher of his
physical body, that which "makes his face to shine." More
mystically interpreted, the ointment which sets him apart from
others, which makes him the "appointed" of God.  And finally, wine,
which, as Grant says, is "not the wine of men, but the ecstatic
inflow of a religious mystic experience" the summation of his
labours, the award for the arduous ascent of the three five and
seven steps of the winding stairs.

The letter "G" is a modern adaptation.  Its meaning is frequently
confused with the "All-seeing eye" and "the point within a circle."
It does not represent the "initial letter of geometry," for the
obvious reason that the silence was so named by the Greeks.  Mackey
states he would regret the use of the letter "G" were it not for
the fact that the letters G, O and D, are the initials of the
Hebrew words, "GOMER," "OZ," "DABAR." He points out that "it must
be considered more than a coincidence that Gomer is ' Beauty,' Oz
is 'STRENGTH' and Dabar is 'WISDOM'." Even with such an explanation
the use of "G" is inconsistent with Masonic claims of universality.
"G" is NOT the initial letter of "Deity" in French, Spanish or
Italian, not to mention the Oriental languages, neither is it
"interchangeable with the initial of geometry" in these languages.
The Hebrew letter "YOD" (■) is the only symbol which can
consistently be used universally, and then not merely becaus e it
is the initial of Deity (Yavah) but for a far mor e recondite

"YOD" is the number ten, and the Kabbalah says: "Ten is the most
perfect number because it includes unity, which created everything,
and zero, symbol of matter and chaos, whence everything emerged.
In its figures it comprehends the created and the uncreated, the
commencement and the end, power and force, life and annihilation.
By the study of this number we find the relations of all things,
the power of the Creator, the faculties of the creature, the Alpha
and Omega of divine knowledge."

Following the advice to "study this number" perhaps a reason can be
discovered for its suspension in the East.  The number ten is
composed Of 3 Plus 3 Plus 4. "Three," the triangle, symbol of Deity
- "three," the triangle, symbol of man (that is the perfect man
made in the image of his Creator). "Four," the square, symbol of
material things in general, and in this instance, specifically,
symbol of material man.
Likewise ten is composed Of 7 Plus 3. "Seven" symbolizes the
creative cycle; "three" denotes Deity.  Thus ten is the symbol of
Divine Creation.  The ancient wise man expounded: "as above, so
below." Below, "seven," still represents the creative cycle;
"three," the triangle, symbol of the perfect man.  Thus, we have
the creative power of man depicted. When "YOD" is RESTORED to its
proper place in the East instead of the "substitute" which is now
there suspended, even the "rational explanation" of the lecture
will convey meaningful lessons and will give the candidate both the
"clue" and the "desire" to search "out of the Lodge" for that
further light he has been informed cannot be conferred upon him

Again in the charge to the candidate it is stressed that: "The
internal, and not the external, qualifications of a man are what
Freemasonry regards." It is to enhance those "internal
qualifications" that the degree of Fellow-craft has been conferred
upon him.  It is to point the way to his "improving himself in
Freemasonry" that the "study of the liberal arts and sciences is
earnestly recommended to your consideration."

"Especially is the science of Geometry recommended, which is
established as the basis of our art.  Geometry, or Masonry,
originally synonymous terms, being of a divine and moral nature, is
enriched with the most useful knowledge; while it proves the
wonderful properties of nature, it demonstrates the most important
truths of morality." Change "morality" to "SPIRITUALITY" and the
TRUE REASON for the study of geometry is discovered.  "It is
enriched with the most useful knowledge; while it proves the
wonderfu l properties of nature, IT DEMONSTRATES THE MORE IMPORTANT


Master Mason

"Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, while the evil
days come not, nor the years draw nigh when thou shalt say, I have
no pleasure in them; while the sun, or the light, or the moon, or
the stars be not darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain; in
the day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong
men shall bow themselves, and the grinders cease because they are
few, and those that look out of the windows be darkened, and the
doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding
is low, and he shall rise up at the voice of the bird, and all the
daughters of music shall be brought low; also when they shall be
afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and
the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a
burden, and desire shall fail: because man goeth to his long home,
and the mourners go about the streets: or ever the silver cord be
loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at
the fountain, or the wheel brok en at the cistern.  Then shall the
dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return
unto God who gave it."

-Ecclesiastes XII: 1, 7

The Entered Apprentice degree, dealing with the material, is
preparatory; that of Fellowcraft is psychical, away FROM the
material, toward the spiritual.  The degree of Master Mason (if the
assumption that Masonry stems from the Mysteries is correct) is the
summit, wholly spiritual.
Interrogation as to personal desire, preparation and worthiness is
repeated.  For a second time the necessity for proficiency in the
preceding degree is emphasized: Patience is still a virtue.
The spiritual is not forced upon any individual. One must reach a
level where he is cognizant of it and, of his own volition, seek
it.  In the third degree the Candidate approaches the spiritual.
He is to MAKE OF HIMSELF the complete man, the MASTER.  He includes
the physical, the psychical and the spiritual. The process is
symbolized by the preparation which includes that of both preceding

Demanding proficiency in the preceding degrees is not an arbitrary
ruling of the Lodge.  It is for the Candidate's personal benefit.
He who has not learned the lessons of the physical and psychical
degrees has not attained a level where he can hope to achieve
understanding of the spiritual.
Knowing the true symbology of the compasses, a "more noble and
glorious" explication than the "rational explanation" given in the
Lodge is apparent.  The compasses are emblematic of the spiritual;
therefore on his first admission into a Lodge of Master Masons the
Candidate is confronted with the fact that he has entered upon the
spiritual degree of Freemasonry.

The Rite of Circumambulation is most ancient.  It is the "Rite of
purification" of him who is about to be initiated.  The direction
taken is to comply with the ancient saying: "if you would do
reverence to the gods, you must turn on the right hand."
Masonically, there is additional significance: the "right is the
stronger side of man"; it symbolizes the psychical side of his
nature, also Universal Law - Jachin. Thus in reverencing the gods,
the right hand and the right side are kept toward the altar.  This
custom in turn has its origin in ancient Solar Worship, and
exemplifies: "As the sun in his course moves round the world by way
of the south, so do I follow that luminary, to obtain the benefit
arising from a journey round the earth by way of the south."

Rabbinical commentaries on the Scripture quoted (Ecclesiastes 12:
1-7) during the perambulation are of interest to all Masons.  A
literal translation from the Hebrew by Isaac Leeser better lends
itself to this explanation; it is therefore quoted in full:
"But remember also thy Creator in the days of thy youthful vigour,
while the evil days are not yet come, nor those years draw nigh of
which thou wilt say, I have no pleasure in them.  While the sun,
and the light, and the moon, and the stars are not yet darkened,
and the clouds not return again after the rain.  On the day when
the watchmen of the house will tremble, and the men of might will
bend themselves, and the grinders stand idle because they are
become few, and those be darkened that look through the windows.
And when the two doors on the streets will be locked, while the
sound of the mill becometh dull, and man riseth up at the voice of
the bird, and all the daughters of song are brought low.  Also when
men will be afraid of every elevation, and are terrified on every
way, and the almond tree will flourish and the locust will drag
itself slowly along, and the desire will gainsay compli ance.
Because ma n goeth to his eternal home, and the mourners go about
the streets.  While the silver cord is not yet torn loose, and the
golden bowl is not crushed, and the pitcher is not broken at the
fountain, and the wheel is not crushed at  the cistern.  When the
dust will return to the earth as it was, and the spirit will return
to God who gave it."

"Remember thy Creator" turn to God in thy "youthful vigour" before
the calamities enumerated overtake thee - "while the evil days are
not yet come." Wait not until those years "draw nigh" when, having
no more pleasure in life, one waits for but death; when failing
sight makes all the luminaries of heaven appear "darkened." The
"watchman who tremble" are likened to the shaking hands of an old
man, the "men of might who bend themselves," the legs weakened by
age.  The "grinders," the teeth, and those "who loo k through the
windows," the dimming eyes.  The "two doors" are the lips; the
"mill" by some is interpreted to be the mouth, but Rashi attributes
the reference to the stomach.  "And man riseth up at the voice of
the bird" - the voice of the old man rises to shrillness like the
voice of a bird.  The "daughters of song," Rashi interprets to mean
"when the song of the singers appears dull in the ears." Philippson
prefers: "when the several notes become unintel ligible." "Afraid
of every elevation, and terrified on every way" - the terrors and
forebodings of the aged.  "And the almond tree will flourish -
"will blossom" man's head will turn white like the almond tree
covered with blossoms.  "The Locust" is emblematic of the ease with
which the strong man labours; whereas in age activity becomes less
and less, as though the locust, otherwise so nimble, had to drag
its light weight as a burden.  By some Hebrew scholars the
"loosening of the silver cord, crushing of the bowl etc." is a
description of the general disso lution of the body.  Others
suppose the silver cord to be the spinal marrow.  The latter has
support in occult teaching, where the "silver cord" is described as
the connection between the spiritual and material bodies which is
severed at death.

It was discovered the "approach" of the Entered Apprentice was
material.  The "approach" of the Fellow-craft, being psychical, was
necessarily different. Herein it is reiterated that the spiritual
combines the other two, for the "approach" of the Master Mason
includes them both.  Likewise does that "due form" in this degree
partake of elements of the previous degrees.
A study herein of the obligation would be Masonically improper.
However, it pertains strictly to those duties assumed toward the
Order, and because of them, to a brother.

"What is the length of a cable-tow?" The answer to the oft-voiced
query is contained in the remarks of the Master.  The cable-tow is
symbolic of the ties to the Fraternity.  How "far" the individual
Mason is "bound" by his obligation (beyond the recognized minimum)
rest solely WITH HIS OWN CONSCIENCE; that alone is the determining
factor of its length.  Some cable-tows will scarcely reach out of
the Lodge room; some, belonging to those Masons truly imbued with
brotherly love, seemingly reach around the worl d.
Attention is directed to the "three Great Lights" and the
"representatives" of the "three Lesser Lights." These latter are
the "Sun, Moon, and Worshipful Master, * * * and are thus
explained: as the Sun rules the day and the Moon governs the night,
so should the Worshipful Master rule and govern his Lodge with
equal regularity and justice." This is an extremely poor analogy.
The only thing "regular" about the Sun and Moon is their
"irregularity," for they rise and set at a different time each day.
Neither do they, in the sense used here, "rule" or "govern" with
"justice." "For He maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the
The three Lesser Lights are a group of symbols of two distinct
meanings.  In the ritual, however, these two meanings are
confusingly combined into one explanation which lends itself to
misinterpretation.  The error is caused by comparing the Worshipful
Master to the Sun and Moon.

Pythagoras was previously quoted as saying: "God formed two things
in his own image; first the universe itself, and second man." We
conceive of a macrocosm and a microcosm.  The underlying idea is a
"Great Lodge" - the Universe, and a "Lesser Lodge" - the human

The Lesser Lights are the Master, Senior and Junior Wardens.  This
is clearly exemplified in the English Lodge, where one light is
placed at each officer's station, rather than grouping them as in
most American Lodges.

The Candidate is informed that three inanimate objects, giving no
material light, are the "Great Lights." Reference is made to
"representatives" of the Lesser Lights, but there are no
"representatives" of the Great Lights.  These are categorically
stated to be the "Holy Bible, Square and Compasses."
The search for light is a search for knowledge.  It is not light
but enLIGHTenment that is desired.  This great illumination that
the Candidate may obtain by aid of "representatives of the three
Lesser Lights" (the Master and Wardens) is that ENLIGHTENMENT to
which these three officers may assist him, when they themselves are
informed in Masonry.

Of the two meanings which have been combined, the deeper spiritual
lesson intends to teach of the unity of the universe and God.  In
the "Great Lodge," the universe, the Lesser Lights are the Sun,
Moon and Stars.  By their aid we are enabled to behold the "Three
Great Lights of the Universe." With the physical eye we behold the
earth.  In the seeing thereof we view God manifested, as He, the
Great Light, materialized Himself in the world by means of the
second Great Light, the "Word" or Universal Law.  Thus, in viewing
the world, we see also God and Law by which He created it, and

In the second degree the Candidate is informed that certain
symbology teaches that "ours is a progressive science." The
progression continues in this degree, and he now observes a further
change in these symbols.  Accepting the material explanation, AND
PROVIDED that was "but partial light," he has every right to assume
that he has now received ALL the light, but is informed that such
is not the case.  He has received ONLY SUCH LIGHT as can be
conferred IN A LODGE.

In seeking the spiritual explanation illustrated by the square and
compasses, the latter, emblematic of the spiritual, are observed
elevated above the square, (typical of the material), which now
serves only as a background for the spiritual. The true
significance of the changing positions of these two Great Lights is
thereby revealed. First the square dominated the compasses,
progress was made, and they were next seen to be intertwined.
Finally in the great exposition of the spiritual the compasses have
c ome to the fore, they now predominate. Thus is symbolized "THE

By the process of deductive reasoning it is evident that the
position of the square and compasses, as now viewed, is not the
logical conclusion of their progression, and that "something" is
missing.  Lost, in the sense that it has not yet been found.  This
reasoning is correct.  There is another position of the square and
compasses, but it will not be found on the altar.  It is on the
floor of the Lodge.
At some time in the past the blazing star was shorn of one of its
points and changed into a five-pointed star.  Apparently some
ritualists, not familiar with the ancient significance of the
six-pointed star, associated it with the "five points of
fellowship" (with which it has no connection) and decided it should
have five points.  In my own studies I have failed to discover a
place in Masonic Symbology for a five-pointed star, and while some
few authorities place it among the Masonic symbols, by so doing t
hey deny its Masonic implication, for in its use they attribute a
Christian reference, which immediately detracts from both the
antiquity and universality of Freemasonry.

The compasses are always open to sixty degrees, and if a cross
piece be placed from one to the same distance from the apex, on the
other, an equilateral triangle is formed.  All that can be produced
by the same procedure with the square is a right-angle triangle,
which is the symbol of the complete man.

Envisage the square on a quadrant.  If it is progressed thirty
degrees (which is one twelfth of a circle and a complete sign of
the zodiac) to sixty degrees, then joined by a cross piece, an
equilateral triangle is formed.  The ancient symbol of Deity is an
equilateral triangle with an angle pointing downward toward His
creation.  The perfect man is symbolized by an equilateral triangle
with an angle pointing upward toward his Creator.  Here is the
SYMBOL of man, "in the image and likeness" of the SYMBOL of his
Creator.  When these two triangles are intertwined they form a
six-pointed star, the shield of David, or seal of Solomon, as it is
likewise known, which for ages has been the Grand Symbol of the
perfect union of the Supreme Being with the Divine Man.

This is logically depicted by the blazing star in the centre of the
floor.  It is properly placed in the floor rather than on the
altar, for the Candidate, having assumed all his obligations, will
not again kneel at the altar.

In ancient times the Hebrew Priest appeared before the congregation
with the tallith (praying shawl) over his head, which he held
uplifted from his face with both raised hands.  His index fingers
touched each other and the thumbs, extended below, likewise touched
each other, thereby forming a triangle.  The fingers of each hand
divided into two by two, forming the Hebrew letter "Shin," initial
letter of "Shaddai, meaning "hovering over"; and carrying the
inference that it was "Divine Presence" which was "ho vering over."
In this manner the Priest uttered the "three-fold benediction,"
repeating three times:

"May the Lord bless thee and keep thee. May the Lord let His
countenance shine Upon thee and be gracious unto thee. May the Lord
lift up His countenance Upon thee and give thee peace."

This beautiful benediction suffers through translation; the English
word "peace" does not convey the fullness of meaning of the Hebrew
word "Shalom," which means "completeness of being."

A certain sign is given the candidate, who is told to what it
alludes.  This explanation is entirely consistent with the meanings
attributed to signs given him on two former occasions, under
similar circumstances.  However, in addition to the "rational
explanation" given, the other two signs, as has been recounted, had
definitely more recondite applications.  The sign in question can
have no other interpretation, IF IT IS CORRECTLY GIVEN in the
ritual.  Further it is inconsistent with a statement made later,
when a certain word is declared lost, and it is inferred the sign
likewise is lost.  Later in the ceremony it is stated that in a
certain manner both the substitute word and sign would be
indicated.  Subsequently the allegory narrates that the hands were
placed in a described position, and offers a logical and quite
natural reason for such a position being assumed.  This then should
logically be the sign, having a double "rational" meaning, a nd
susceptible of an esoteric explanation as well.  It is the wr
iter's understanding that the G.H.S., as used in most American
jurisdictions, is unknown in English Masonry where the sign lust
discussed answers the purpose.

It is highly possible that long usage and carelessness on the part
of those using these signs throughout the centuries have corrupted
them.  Originally both signs were probably one, that is the hands
were held in the same relationship to each other, but in the two
different positions related to the body.  They obviously bore some
relationship (which the informed Mason will immediately discern) to
the manner in which the Hebrew Priest conferred the benediction.
Assuming a connection exists, what symbolism i s conveyed by the
position? The triangle, formed by the thumbs and fingers,
symbolizes the spiritual.  The letter "Shin," formed by the
fingers, typifies "Divine Presence hovering over." The position of
the hands has immemorially been associated with the three-fold
benediction, bespeaking "completeness of being." Therefore we have
"illustrated by symbols" the TRUTH that the SPIRITUAL is
COMPLETENESS OF BEING, which is attained through recognition of
Divine Pres ence which is constantly hovering over.

Further evidence of the spirituality of this degree is amply at
hand. The Biblical character Tubalcain is mentioned, but in some
rituals proper emphasis on the esoteric meaning of this name is
lacking.  Therein it is merely stated that he was a "brother of
Jubal, the eighth man from Adam, and the first known artificer in
metals." The Bible, however, is more specific.  Genesis 4:22.  "And
Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructor of every artificer
in brass and iron."
This may seem to raise a sharp distinction but, if we are to
understand the meaning of ancient symbols, sharp distinctions must
be the rule rather than the exception.  It is not sufficiently
enlightening to know he worked "in metals," the specific metals
must be known.  Later on is discussed the meaning of Hiram Abiff as
"cunning in all works of brass." The exact symbology applies in
this instance in addition to which we are informed Tubalcain was
likewise proficient in iron.

The reference to iron is better understood by referring to The
Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception, by Max Heindel. - "Iron is in reality
the basis of separate existence.  Without iron the red, heat-giving
blood would be an impossibility, and the Ego could have no hold in
the body.  When red blood developed - in the latter part of the
Lemurian Epoch - the body became upright and the time had come when
the Ego could begin to dwell within the body and control it." Hence
it is apparent that "iron" symbolizes the phys ical.

That Tubalcain was an "instructor" of every artificer implies
greater skill and knowledge than that of a mere artificer."
Recognizing this emphatic distinction,  we discern that Tubalcain
was a highly skilled worker on both the spiritual and the material
plane, CAPABLE OF INSTRUCTING OTHERS.  The lofty aim of the Master
Mason is to attain like proficiency, hence Tubalcain may well be
held up as a fitting reminder to the Master Mason of his own goal.

The manner of wearing the apron in the preceding degrees is
recapitulated.  A certain manner is both described and
demonstrated, and the Candidate is then informed that it is
"obsolete" because of certain reasons, and that the apron should be
worn as a Fellow-craft.

An apron folded diagonally not only DOES NOT FORM A SQUARE (as
stated in several jurisdictions in America) but loses all
resemblance thereto - it becomes a triangle. It is the emblem of
the spiritual, and concurs in the symbology of the compasses
elevated above the square.  For the sake of consistency, in view of
the fact that the apron and the square and compasses have repeated
the same progressing symbology thus far, it may be asked if a
further change in the apron is indicated.  It is impossible to fold
an apron, evenly, into an equilateral triangle; it therefore will
not change to concur with the symbology of the six-pointed star.
The apron is worn by the evolving man, up to and including his
attainment of "completeness." But the apron is a material thing,
regardless of what it may symbolize; obviously it cannot be worn by
the perfected man, who is a spiritual being, hence logically the
progression of the apron ceases.

The working tools of a Master Mason are "all the implements of
Masonry indiscriminately, ESPECIALLY THE TROWEL." A survey of "All
the implements" reveals but six.  This is inconsistent with the
numerology of the Lodge.  It is symbolically necessary they total
seven, and if the setting-maul is included the total is seven.
Masonically it is regarded as an instrument of violent death.  For
that reason it possibly was removed from the working tools by some
early ritualists who did not realize its symbolical si gnificance.
It should be reinstated for the same logical reasons which suggest
it was originally included.  Anyone who has watched a brickmason at
work has noticed how he uses the handle of his trowel to tap the
brick into proper position.  A stone-mason performs the same task
with a setting maul, as a stone is too massive to respond to the
taps of a trowel handle.  Thus the setting-maul is an essential
tool of the operative mason.

The tools of the Apprentice are preparatory tools; those of the
Fellow-craft, strictly speaking, are not "tools." They are
"instruments" with which to measure, to bring into manifestation in
the material building those concepts, formed in the mind of the
architect, of "plumb" uprights, "level" footings and "square"
joinings.  Again it is repeated and emphasized that the spiritual
encompasses the other two planes of existence; they are necessary
to it, yet it extends away and beyond the material and psychica l,
for in addition to employing the "tools" of the other planes it has
"tools" peculiar to its own plane.  True "brotherly love" is a
spiritual attribute, and it is only the trowel which can spread the
"cement of brotherly love and affection."

The other implements of Masonry are all right angles, horizontals,
and perpendiculars.  The trowel cannot be so described, for its
point forms an acute angle.  While operative trowels are varied in
shape to adapt them to different purposes, the symbolic trowel of
Masonry should be made with an angle of sixty degrees, wherein is
discovered an equilateral triangle.  Thus it is discovered the
"working tool" peculiar to the Master Mason is the emblem of the
spiritual. This is to demonstrate that, as an "oversee r of the
work, he must be proficient in the use of all the implements
indiscriminately," else he could not supervise others; but he must
progress beyond the ability of those under his direction.  He must
also, and ESPECIALLY, work spiritually.
The symbology of the trowel points to further evidence favouring
the inclusion of the setting-maul.  With its rounded base and sides
tapering up to the handle, it discloses sixty degree angles and,
coinciding with the trowel, diverges from those tools described as
right-angles, horizontals and perpendiculars. Ready at hand, too,
is an ethical lesson.
A setting-maul is an instrument made use of by operative masons to
coerce the unwieldy stone into its proper position in the building;
but we, as Free and Accepted Masons are taught to make use of it
for the more noble and glorious purpose of impelling ourselves into
our proper positions in that building of which we are to form a
part.  A more recondite exposition is seen in the Constructive and
Destructive actions of Universal Law.  In the hands of the ignorant
and unskilled workman it becomes an instrumen t of death and
destruction, but in the hands of the enlightened and skilful
craftsman it becomes a Constructive instrument with which the
recalcitrant stone is forced into its proper position.

The proficiency examination of this degree is practically a
recapitulation of the ceremony of initiation, and only two
questions and answers shed any further light on the esoteric
doctrine.  Of all the material creation man alone can declare "I
AM." But those words are far more than a declaration of a material
fact.  To so declare is recognition of consciousness - a statement
of recognized individuality.  AN AFFIRMATION OF DIVINITY - for ONLY
God, and man, made in His image, can declare "I AM." Not in the m
ere statement, but rather in the complete realization of its
implications, is the power we seek, for it is an affirmation of
There is more than one kind of foreign country.  To reach those
shown on the map, one must transport the physical body, but those
foreign countries of the mental realm may be instantaneously
reached by the mind.  Those foreign countries are fields of thought
"foreign" to our present mode of thinking, and when we travel in
them we receive Master's wages in the bountiful rewards such
thinking brings into our lives.  The entire object of Freemasonry
is to inculcate such thinking, for when followed to its logic al
conclusion it is discovered that FREEMASONRY IS NOT A LODGE, NOT A


The Great Moral Lesson

"In that deep force, the last fact behind which analyst cannot go,
all things find their common origin.  For, the sense of being which
in calm hours rises, we know not how, in the soul, is not diverse
from things, from space, from light, from time, from man, but one
with them, and proceeds obviously from the same source whence their
life and being also proceeds. * * * We lie in the lap of immense
intelligence, which makes us receivers of its truth, and organs of
its activity." -Emerson

Freemasonry is a beautiful system of morals, veiled in allegory and
illustrated by symbols." The "illustration by symbols" is that
portion of the ceremony which has preceded.  The definition of
allegory which reads: "presents a truth under the guise of
fictitious narrative or description" is an exact description of
what is done in this portion of this degree.

A story, is told, complete in itself, and if one desires to seek no
further he has received a valuable lesson portraying the life and
action of a man of high morality and integrity.  This lesson,
however, is incomparable to the spiritual truth presented.  It is
to prepare the Candidate for the acceptance of this truth that he
is initiated and instructed in the preceding degrees.

The first time one takes a particular journey he instinctively
notes certain landmarks along the way - a tree, a hill, or a
stream.  On a second occasion he judges his progress toward his
journey's end by these landmarks.  If necessity takes him that way
again, for a third time, the landmarks have become old friends,
beckoning him on with assurances that he is nearing his
destination.  Presuming he has completed his journey, his surprise
and possible consternation may well be imagined when he is informed
th at such is not the case.  If under these circumstances he is
told that further journeying is necessary ere his goal is reached,
and that the journey may be rough and rugged and even beset with
perils, the devout man will pray for Divine protection and
assistance.  He will turn to no earthly power, nor will he beseech
others to pray for him.
Every man, except he is an atheist, has some image of God before
his mind's eye.  To some the image is dim and indistinct of
outline, a mere philosophical necessity.  To others it is a clear
concept, an abiding faith.  Placed in a position of dire peril,
where material assistance is of no avail, each man's trust in his
God is put to the supreme test.

Before the Lodge prayed for the Candidate.  The Lodge initiated
him, held before him the symbols, gave him instruction and brought
him to the same place as all who had gone that way before him.  Its
work was accomplished.  Evolution raises the race to the level
where the individual recognizes THERE IS A LAW and, learning to
cooperate with it, he works out his further destiny.  Here the
Candidate is in that exact position.  Further progress depends on
his own efforts, hence he is informed that his goal has n ot been
reached, and correct ritual will add that IT IS NOT KNOWN IF HE

It has been suggested that Masonry is Mental Science, the science
of controlling one's life and destiny through the creative power of
thought.  In this connection the thesis of the objective and
subjective mind proves helpful.  The process of creative thought is
to visualize with the objective mind the desired condition, and
implant this picture in the subjective mind.  The latter then
creates that which the objective mind desires.  This process is
continuous, therefore negative, destructive thoughts transm itted
to the subjective have the same effect as positive, constructive
thoughts.  Even though the individual be ignorant of this law it is
still the law. Job illustrates the negative action when he laments:
"The thing which I greatly feared is come upon me, and that which I
was afraid of is come unto me." Both the positive and the negative
action is suggested in the statement: "As a man thinketh in his
heart, so is he." It is the creative power of thought that accounts
for life's every condition.  It is the purpose of Masonry to so
inform its initiates that they may actively use the Constructive
principle for good and, knowing of the Destructive principle,
refrain from those mental attitudes which are causations of evil.

The requisite of constructive creative thought is faith.
"Therefore I say unto you, what things whatsoever ye desire, when
ye pray believe that ye receive, and ye shall receive."
Particularly note the two tenses.  First: "believe ye receive,"
present tense, "and ye SHALL receive," future tense.

This portion of the degree allegorically depicts this power of
thought.  The narrator, breaking into the middle of a story,
informs the Candidate he represents a certain person.  Of what has
gone before the Candidate is not told; if he is curious he may turn
to the Bible and been the tale.  A Temple is under construction and
partially completed.  Three Grand Masters are in charge of the
construction.  Who are these three, and what is their symbolical
significance? We too, may turn to the Bible for our answe r.

Relative to Hiram King of Tyre: "And Hiram sent to Solomon saying,
I have considered the things which thou sentest to me for; and I
will do all thy desire concerning timber of cedar, and concerning
timber of fir." Here related is the agreement to furnish the
material for the Temple, and it is indicative of the importance
attached to the material or physical.  Symbolically Hiram of Tyre
is the "Material."

"In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and
God said, ask what I shall give thee.  And Solomon said * * * I am
but a child; I know not how to go out or come in. * * * Give
therefore thy servant an understanding heart to judge Thy people,
that I may discern between good and bad." Solomon symbolizes the
psychical.  It was the acquisition of wisdom which enabled Solomon
to visualize or create the Temple in his mind, that it might be
materialized on the chosen building site.  A further less on in
Mental Science is to be gained from this scriptural passage.
Solomon asked for wisdom, not from selfish motives but that he
might guide his people.  This so pleased God, we are told, that He
added riches and long life.  This is the operation of Universal
Law.  With wisdom one need not ask for riches or health, for wisdom
dictates that the Constructive Principle in nature be followed and
when that Great Law is obeyed "all these things shall be added unto

"And King Solomon went and fetched Hiram out of Tyre, he was a
widow's son * * * and he was filled with wisdom and understanding,
and cunning to work all works of brass.  And he came to King
Solomon and he wrought all his works."

To understand the foregoing passage we must know the symbology
employed in the Bible.  The masses of the ancients regarded the sun
as a god, the more enlightened as a symbol of God.  Gold, because
of its color, was the symbol of the sun.  Likewise brass, being
more plentiful and of similar color, was often substituted for
gold.  In the process of mental evolution the sun, because of its
position in the "above," assumed an ethical aspect of the
spiritual, and likewise those materials which symbolized the sun .
In this sense the Biblical statement that "Hiram was filled with
wisdom and understanding, and cunning to work all works of brass"
actually informs us that he was cunning, or skilled, to "work all
works" spiritual.  Thus he clearly symbolizes the spiritual.
Together with the other two we have the Spiritual, Psychical and
Physical.  Man alone is composed of these three components, thus
the symbolical meaning of the Temple is clear.

The "Sanctum Sanctorum" of each individual is the secret chamber of
the soul into which one should "habitually" retire.  This
individual Holy of Holies is UNFINISHED, for few have attained
those spiritual heights which are the FINISHED WORK.  The Grand
Master is typical of the objective mind which retires to the secret
closet of its own innermost being - withdrawing from the material
world, there to "draw designs upon the trestle-board" - the
receptive subjective mind, which but waits for the imprint of tho
se "designs for living." The "craft" is Universal Mind which
develops the plans drawn.  The process of building the Temple is
the development of character, the evolving of the real individual.

After the process of drawing designs upon the trestle-board the
Grand Master offered up devotion to Deity.  True devotion to Deity
is obedience to Universal Law.  Man's ideal of God forms his
character, and his life work is the individual's contribution to
the attainment of God's plans.

The Grand Master also "meditated upon the wonders of the Universe."
Such meditation brings a realization of the Infinite Wisdom which
planned this world whereon we abide.  Through that meditation the
Infinite Power of creation is dimly realized.  Thus it dawns upon
our consciousness that we were created by that same Universal
Wisdom and Power.  When we contemplate the physical body of man we
realize it is as wonderful as the universe itself.  Continued
meditation brings the further realization that, wonderf ul as the
body may be, the mind is even more marvelous.  Thus we arrive at
the true meaning of being in the image and likeness of our Creator.
The mind, the likeness of God, is endowed with the power to create
the microcosm, as God manifested in the creation of the macrocosm.

It should be remembered that this retirement into the Sanctum
Sanctorum was a "custom." We have only to make the comparison
between the material Temple and the Human Temple, to realize the
need of habitual retirement to the Holy of Holies.  Had the Grand
Master's retirement been irregular, had he drawn plans for several
days and then neglected to do so for a period, the "craft" could
not have maintained their labors.  There would have been times when
"no plans were on the trestle-board," and the craft idle. So with
the individual; unless he daily "draws designs upon HIS
trestle-board," makes thereof a "custom," his craft will remain
idle and his Temple unfinished.

Upon one occasion the Grand Master encountered opposition, and it
is his conduct under the circumstances which is the basis for the
Great Moral Lesson.  We rightly emphasize his devotion to duty, his
integrity, but in so doing the equally important lesson illustrated
by the "opposition" should not be lost.

Names are given "things" for the purpose of identification.  They
are also given individuals for the same reason.  Names originally
were descriptive.  Any attempt to an understanding of the Bible or
Freemasonry is useless without a knowledge of the nomenclature.
Similar names obviously derive from the same country or tribe.
Identical names usually denote family relationship.

Each of the cities of Canaan had some one god it revered above all
other gods.  Baal was the local nature god of Tyre, thus "Baal" or
"Bal" appearing in a name identifies the bearer as a "man of Tyre."
An identical prefix would indicate family connection, while the
dissimilar suffixes denote the individuals.  Incidentally, such
ritual as refers to the "peculiarity" of these names is incorrect.
They were not "peculiar" and may well have been as common as the
English "Smith." "Similarity" is the correct expr ession.

Depicting them as "brethren" and "men of Tyre" is for definite
symbolic purpose.  As brothers they spring from the same parentage
(source).  As "men of Tyre" they are shown to be worshipers of
Baal, the nature or MATERIAL god, which establishes a distinction
between them and "men of Israel," who are worshipers of Jehovah,
the SPIRITUAL God.  It is inoperative to the consistency of the
allegory that these Tyrians perpetrate the deed.  A symbolic
impossibility for "men of Israel." This is emphasized by the "r
oll-call"; all Hebrew names answering present, while the only
Tyrians called are the absent ones under discussion. (It is hoped
the reader gathers the subtle distinction - it is impossible to be
more explicite.)

The "First" typifies material desires, greed, avarice and
covetousness, which prompt the attempt to gain selfish benefits
regardless of the rights of others.  True to Masonic symbology he
strikes with the one working tool which above all others symbolizes
the material or physical, and it is likewise noteworthy that it is
a working tool of the degree we have discovered to be the material

The "Second" symbolizes the psychical.  He incites those attitudes
of mind rather than material desires.  He it is who is responsible
for intolerance, bigotry, hatred and envy.  It is he who is
conquered when we "keep our passions within due bounds." Again the
symbology of the weapon used is in conformity.  It is the emblem of
the psychical and the principal working tool of the psychical

Vicious and malevolent as are the first two, it is the "Third" who
is deadly, and he strikes with a SETTING-MAUL! Here is yet another
outstanding example of the beautiful consistency of our symbology.
This is the instrument which by all logic must have at some time
been numbered among the working tools of the Craft. Its deeply
significant symbology in this instance strengthens that
presumption, and adds conviction that it was a working tool of the
third degree - the spiritual degree of Masonry.

The individual retires to his Holy of Holies and plans his life in
thoughtful solitude.  Primarily man realizes intuitively a first
cause.  Then his intellect formulates for him a Supreme Being, thus
intuition and intellect form a basis for faith.  That faith
embodies the realization that he is as his Creator.  But in order
to attain this lofty vision he must wait, patiently, until his
Temple is completed.  Only then, if found worthy, shall he receive
that which he seeks.  However, on his return to the "mat erial
world" of every day affairs, he is accosted by "DOUBT" - "IF I am
like my Creator, why cannot I create conditions in accordance with
my desires?" He does not recognize the fact that the Temple is not
yet completed, that he has not proven his worthiness, that his
wisdom is not commensurate with the power he seeks; "DOUBT" strikes
down "FAITH," which alone can give him his desire.  Then indeed is
there confusion in the Temple of that individual.

According to Mental Science there is sound reason for the Biblical
admonition that we shall be held accountable for "every idle word."
We indulge in many thoughts, in themselves not necessarily
detrimental to our spiritual welfare, but useless, wasting mental
power which might be put to better purpose.  This thought is
conveyed by the action of other craftsmen.  These, when properly
directed by King Solomon, proved their worth.  Three of these who
"repented" accomplished their mission.  Thus is illustrated the
truth that, changing the process of thought from the destructive to
the constructive, the negative can be mastered and we build where
formerly we destroyed.

This portion of the allegory is taken from the Solar Myth of the
murder of the sun by three of the signs of the zodiac, and the
search for him by the other nine signs.  It is quite obvious that
no search would be undertaken in the "north," for that was the
region of darkness. (Masonic ritual reveals full knowledge of this
fact in the arrangement of the three principal officers' stations.)
Therefore the ritual is in error in reciting: "we twelve with three
others, etc." It would be more consistent with both the facts in
the case and other portions of the ceremonies if it stated: "we
nine with three others, etc." Later the instructions are given to
"divide into bands of three, travel, etc." These instructions
should exclude the "north."

In the attempt of the fugitives to leave the country is contained a
further allegorical lesson.  Only in one way can the human mind
leave its present plane of existence, the "country" in which it now
abides.  That way is in conformity with Universal Law.  The
inability to "leave the country without Solomon's passport" which
in this case is authority, or law, is analogous.

Lacking that authority and unable to depart they turn back into the
country (i.e., continue on the same plane) and hide in a cave.  A
"cave" being definitely a material place, we are allegorically
informed they took refuge in the material.  Recalling what then
transpired we see in its enactment the continued repetition of the
lesson reiterated throughout the degrees of Masonry.  Not mere
punishment of crime but the inevitable results of invoking the
Destructive principle, the law of cause and effect.

The remaining Grand Masters express the fear that the "word" is
lost.  If the word is lost to the extent that it cannot be given,
inferentially, the sign intended to symbolize the word is likewise
lost.  This being the case it is apparent that the true and loyal
workmen cannot be rewarded as promised.  This is consistent with
Universal Law, but it is beyond the intent of this book to develop
minute detail.  This inference, like others which have been made,
must be left to the inclination of the individual r eader to
develop if he is so minded.  Suffice it to state there is an
inference that future generations will discover the right.

How is this to be accomplished? By all the veiled hints which may
be discovered in the ritual it is clear that it must be through
PERSONAL, INDIVIDUAL EFFORT.  Reasonable presumption indicates it
was thus acquited, originally, by the Grand Masters.  There is a
difference, however; the workman is to be given a substitute which
we may correctly assume contains a clue to the right.  The method
of choosing a substitute was announced, and should be kept in ntnd,
as it has a bearing on what is later brought out i n connection
with the meaning of the substitute.

In the effort to raise the body, the first means tried was
ineffectual, because in conformity with scientific truth no effect
can be greater than its cause.  The grip of an Entered Apprentice
is of the material, and the material cannot "cause" itself.

A second effort was likewise impotent.  Mind alone cannot cause
life, hence the use of psychical means, symbolized by the grip of
the Fellow-craft, cannot bring back life.  In this extremity it was
natural to ask Divine guidance.  Being inspired to use means which
we have seen to be emblematic of the spiritual, a natural law is
invoked - that "like attracts like" spirit responds to spiritual

In Mackey's Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry he comments on "Marrow of
the Bone" as follows: "An absurd corruption of a Jewish word, and
still more absurdly said to be its translation.  It has no
appropriate signification in the place to which it is applied, but
was once religiously believed in by many Masons who, being ignorant
of the Hebrew language, accepted it as a true interpretation.  It
is now universally rejected by the intelligent portion of the

The word in question is incorrectly pronounced, which is quite
understandable under the circumstances surrounding its transmission
to us.  Fortunately the pronunciation has not been so badly
mutilated as to be no longer recognizable.  Therefore the meaning
is not lost to us.  This is actually two Hebrew words.  The first
is the Hebrew interrogative pronoun "what." Dependent on its use it
might also signify "why" or "how." Coupled as it is in this
instance, "how" is preferable.  It can correctly be interpret ed:
"what a great master" - "what, a great master" or "how great a
master." As uttered by King Solomon, if the circumstances are
brought to mind, it is apparently addressed to The Supreme Being,
and can therefore as easily be construed to mean; "How great is Thy

On mention of the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, the Christian
immediately traces the lineage of Jesus, and interprets such
reference as pertaining to him.  No criticism is intended of these
views, no particular interpretation is ever forced upon the Mason,
nor is Masonry dogmatic in the sense that any specific
interpretation of its mysteries is insisted upon as being the one
and only true meaning of its allegories and symbology.  No Mason
should ever be intolerant of the views of others, and he should
conside r any intelligent interpretation offered by another, for it
is through diversity that the harmony of unity is eventually
attained, be it in the Universe or in the  Lodge.

According to tradition, Jesus was a widow's son when he began his
ministration.  He was subjected to three temptations, which he
withstood.  Some maintain the Masonic allegory re-enacts the
temptations and death of Jesus.  There are indeed parallels present
but, upon the theory that Masonry had its origin at the building of
King Solomon's Temple, a date is established approximately one
thousand years prior to the lifetime of Jesus.

Some two thousand years before the building of Solomon's Temple,
history reveals a similar event.  We refer to the Egyptian legend
of Osiris.  How much further into prehistoric time it extends we
have no means of knowing.  There are extant paintings on the walls
of Egyptian tombs of a priest with the head and claws of a lion
covering his own head and hands, raising an individual clothed in
white robes, presumably the candidate of the Mysteries, from a
reclining position in an open sarcophagus.

The essential substance of all these allegories is that there is
one Infinite Power, an Omnipotent Creator and Sustainer of the
Universe - that man is created in the image and likeness of that
Creator.  He is not material but spiritual, hence man in His
likeness partakes of that spirituality.  Man, through the misuse of
his freedom of choice, lost the knowledge of the use of his
spiritual power.  He misused that freedom of choice to choose the
material rather than the spiritual.  The intent of all these all
egories is to bring man to the realization of his spiritual nature,
that he may "find that which is lost." Only as man thinks of
himself in terms of a spiritual being can he regain his lost

Freemasonry is taught by degrees only. Just as surely can it be
said it is only learned "by degrees" gradually - as the result of
sincere desire and effort on the part of the seeker after its
light.  There is no "substitute" for these two requirements,
"SINCERE DESIRE and EFFORT," but there is guidance in the  search.
A clue is found - in the closing prayer of the Lodge.  "Wilt Thou
be pleased so to influence our hearts and minds that we may, each
one of us, PRACTICE OUT OF THE LODGE those great moral duti es
which are inculcated in it, and with reverence STUDY AND OBEY the
laws which Thou hast given us in thy Holy Word."


Master Mason Lecture

"Only those are truly Masons who enter their Temple in reverence,
who seek not the ephemeral things of life but the treasures which
are eternal, whose sole desire is to know the true mystery of the
Craft that they may join as honest workmen those who have gone
before as builders of the Universal Temple." -Manly P. Hall

The Bible relates that the Temple was seven years in building. Its
chief supports were three columns denominated "WISDOM, STRENGTH and
BEAUTY." Further data is given regarding the number of columns and
pilasters, the number of Grand Masters, Masters, Fellow-craft and
Apprentices employed in the work.

These data refer to the human body, of which the Temple of Solomon
is symbolical.  Some authorities are of the opinion that the
numerology of the Temple refers to the number of bones, nerves,
muscles and organs of the body according to some ancient theory of
anatomy.  Others believe the numerology is Kabalistic.  The latter
would be impossible of modern application.  There is no translation
of the Kaballah in English which accounts for its numerical values
and, due to the nature of the Hebrew method of comb ining letters
and numbers, such translation would be an impossibility.  The first
mentioned theory is not in agreement with modern anatomy, Either or
both may be correct.

The fact that the Grand Masters so obviously represent the three
planes of existence, Physical, Psychical and Spiritual, together
with the last portion of the lecture, strongly supports the
anatomical theory. The lecture states: "All these were so
classified and arranged by the wisdom of Solomon that neither envy,
discord nor confusion was suffered to disturb the peace and
good-fellowship which prevailed among the workmen." The affirmation
of Mental Science that the subjective mind is the controller of
bodi ly functions affords a logical and consistent interpretation.
When subjective mind, or "Solomon," is in charge of the planning
and arranging it so organizes the various organs of the body (the
workmen on the Temple), that there is "neither discord nor
confusion," and perfect harmony prevails, resulting in health and
well-being for the physical man.

Of the emblems of this degree some are ancient and have occult
meaning. Others appear to be modern additions, made by those who
had little understanding of the symbology of the ancients.  These
modern additions bave no spiritual meaning; in fact, in some
instances, they distort the truth the other emblems are intended to
convey.  These "modern additions" are: "The book of constitutions -
"the hour glass" - "the scythe" - "the coffin" -  "the anchor."

Books of constitutions were unknown to the ancients. The hour glass
is obviously "modern." If this were an "ancient" emblem it would be
a sun-dial and not an hour glass.  The Scythe, as an emblem of
"time and the grim reaper," is of recent adoption, as the ancients
made no such use of the symbol.  The coffin is such a "modern"
touch that it scarcely is worthy of comment.  The anchor in
connection with the ark is an absurd contradiction of the very
meaning of the ark, as will be seen when the symbolism of th e ark
is later explained.

It is true that most of these additions have been made to teach
some material lesson to the candidate, but they detract from the
spiritual meanings of the truly ancient emblems.  They merely
suggest the brevity of material life and, as the lecture states,
"close the explanation upon the solemn thought of death." The
object of Freemasonry, however, is not to "dwell upon the solemn
thought of death." Its whole teaching is the joyous thought of
LIFE! These emblems serve to remind the candidate of the necessit y
of experiencing physical death before he can know spiritual life.
The secret the Master Mason is striving to learn is to ATTAIN
SPIRITUAL LIFE before experiencing physical death.

Of the truly ancient emblems the first is the "pot of incense." The
pot is emblematic of the human body, the material.  The incense
typifies the psychical within" the body.  The flaming spark is the
spiritual.  The spark refines the psychical man, just as the common
gavel "divests the heart and conscience of all the vices and
superfluities of life." The "pot of incense" is another method of
illustrating that "preparing the mind" to be a "living stone in
that house not made with hands." With the gavel the "r ough
corners" are broken off; with the "spark" of the incense pot, the
dross and impurities are "burned," leaving the psychical nature the
brighter for its purification by fire.  It is not strange that a
philosophy which originates in the dim past from Solar Religious
teaching should borrow the analogy of purification by fire.  More
difficult of understanding is the fact that more of the ancient
analogies have not been introduced.

In Morals and Dogma, Pike states: "To understand literally the
symbols and allegories of oriental books as to ante-historical
matters, is willfully to close our eyes against the light.  To
translate the symbols into the trivial and commonplace, is the
blundering of mediocrity."

In the lecture, explanation of the "bee hive" approaches
dangerously near the "blundering of mediocrity." This is a most
complex symbol which may be used as a complete analogy of every
aspect of life, yet only a material lesson of industry is drawn
therefrom.  Attention is directed to the helplessness of man in his
infancy and the fact that "he who will not endeavor to add to the
common stock of knowledge may be deemed a drone in the hive of
nature, a useless member of society and unworthy of our protection
as Freemasons."

It is true that the bee hive is an excellent example of industry.
The analogy of dependence of the individual on society is patent,
also the admonition that each must do his part for the benefit of
the whole.  These, however, are material lessons which might be
conveyed by dozens of other symbols.  What are the spiritual, the
deeper lessons taught, peculiar to this particular emblem?

The Queen Bee lays but one kind of egg.  Whether the egg shall
eventually produce a worker, a drone or a queen is determined by
the type of cell in which the egg is laid and the food furnished
the larvae.  This symbolizes that all come from the same primordial
substance, that ALL are POTENTIALLY EQUAL. It directs attention to
the role played by environment in the development of the latent
potentialities of each individual.  It admonishes that one exercise
the greatest care in the choice of environment for h imself and
others.  This environment is not only the physical conditions with
which the individual surrounds himself but is likewise his
associations, and above all his mode of thought.  Thus the bee hive
is illustrative of that great truth: "As a man thinketh - SO IS

The impression that the queen rules the hive is erroneous.  She, as
a fully developed female, lays the eggs.  Apiarists, writing on bee
culture, refer to the "spirit of the hive." It is this "spirit of
the hive" which rules the bees.  And this "spirit" is instinctive
knowledge of Universal Law.  The bee obeys the law, therefore
"peace and harmony prevail" within the hive.  When man as
unerringly conforms to that same Universal Law he too finds that
"peace and harmony prevail" in his life.

In that marvelous chemical laboratory, the bee, the law of "like
producing like" also rules.  Honey made from the nectar of the
orange blossom has the aroma and flavor of that blossom; when made
of nectar of the clover blossom it is clover honey.  Nothing can
change this law.  Nature has given man the analogy that he may
apply it to the action of his thoughts.  Just as surely will his
constructive thinking produce beneficial results, of like "aroma
and flavor" as the source from which he obtains those thoug hts.

In search of nectar the bee flies far afield, yet instinctively
returns to the hive.  Similarly knowledge which, in man, we name
intuition has impelled him throughout the ages to seek his proper
place in the universe.

Man is a triune being, physical, psychical and spiritual.  The bee
hive is also a "one" composed of three component parts: the queen,
the workers and the drones.  Man, while operating on the physical
plane, has need of all three of his component parts.  At that
transition which we call death he lays aside his physical body and
continues in the psychical and spiritual.  During the summer the
drones are needed to fertilize the new queen bee.  When they have
fulfilled their purpose they are discarded.  Through out the winter
the hive functions with "two parts," the queen and the workers.

The Masonic symbols repeatedly reiterate the verity of Universal
Law and the absolute necessity of conforming to that Law.  To
develop the body man must adhere to nature's physical laws.  The
development of his mentality depends upon obedience to the law of
mind.  So, too, spiritual progress may be attained only through
compliance with spiritual law.  This profound lesson is especially
conveyed by the "sword pointing to a naked heart." Although too
frequently interpreted as a symbol of revenge, "it demonstr ates
that justice will sooner or later overtake us." It implies neither
PUNISHMENT nor REVENGE.  These are negative qualities of the human
mind.  The "heart and sword" is an exposition of the law of karma,
of the absolute justice in the laws of the universe - the symbol of
CAUSE AND EFFECT, that "whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also

The ancient teaching is unity and causation, and the symbols used
typify that all phenomena spring from a single "First Cause," hence
the ancient philosophers believed in a "one living and true God."
The mind of man, ever evolving, has not changed fundamentally, and
the ancients had the same difficulty as we have in conceiving an
Omnipresent Deity.  Therefore, to convey the idea of omnipresence
more palpably, they typified that abstract idea by a human eye.  An
eye which sees all is ever conscious of the en tire universe.  Thus
the Universal Intelligence, of which the eye is the manifest
presence, is omnipresent.  The "all seeing-eye" is emblematic of
God's ever-presence.  The use of the emblem in the Lodge is
sometimes misconstrued as a symbol for God, rather than His
attribute, omnipresence.

An ark has for ages been used as a symbol of a vehicle for the
transmission of the life principle from an old order to a new
order.  This symbology was not exclusive with the Jew but was
employed by other nations of antiquity - notably the Egyptians,
from whom, doubtless, the Jew obtained it, as used in the Bible.
The ark of Noah was such a vehicle of transmission.  It carried the
patriarch and his family from the antediluvian world of wickedness
to that new world into which they disembarked after the floo d. The
Ark of the Covenant was a symbol of the "passing over" of the
children of Israel from the life of bondage in Egypt to that new
order of life in the Promised Land.
The lecture of this degree implies the same symbology when it
states: "It (the ark) is emblematic of that Divine Ark which safely
wafts us over this tempestuous sea of troubles * * *" However, this
analogy makes use of but one portion of the symbology, and chooses
the weakest lesson which can be drawn therefrom.  It deals only
with the destructive principle, life's "tempestuous sea of
troubles." The Masonic philosophy never intended to dilate on
troubles, death and disease.  Our present understanding of Mas onry
is inept when we embody in our prayer to God such sentiment as:
"And support us under the trials and afflictions we are destined to
endure while traveling through this vale of tears." By what
authority may it be claimed man is DESTINED to endure "trials and
afflictions"? Who but a misanthrope would call this life a "vale of

The purpose of Masonry is to impart to its initiates knowledge of
Universal Law; to teach of its action and reaction throughout
nature as two Great Principles - the Constructive and the
Destructive.  Only when man learns of these two principles of law
and lives in conformity with the Constructive does he avoid these
IMAGINARY calamities, for these are not God's visitations, but
rather the effects of man's own misdoings.  We should therefore
seek a more beneficial analogy from the symbology of the ark.

The Ark is that "vehicle" which "safely wafts us" from an old order
to a new order of life.  It is appropriately an emblem of the third
degree.  It is emblematic of the Candidate being "raised" - "wafted
over" from the degree of Fellow-craft, the psychical plane, to that
of Master Mason, the spiritual plane. Therein, indeed, is he in a

The "Forty-seventh problem of Euclid" is the key to Masonic
symbology.  It opens the door to the truth for which we are in
search.  If we must use a modern analogy, perhaps it had best be
likened to a "combination" known only to a few; a "key" is too
obvious.  The horizontal line represents the physical body, the
perpendicular line, the psyche. joining at a right angle they form
a perfect square (the intellectual man, composed of mind and body).
The hypotenuse typifies the spiritual, and its addition compl etes
the figure.  The "three" sides form "one" figure - the complete

The sum of the squares of the perpendicular and horizontal lines
equals the square of the hypotenuse.  The sum of the three angles
is constant.  When applied to man - irrespective of the length of
the horizontal, the material; regardless of the height of the
perpendicular, the psychical "the sum of their squares equals the
square of the hypotenuse," the spiritual.  In other words, as
taught in the Mysteries, Man's spiritual evolution is effected by,
and dependent upon, his physical and mental development an d
attainment, but the spiritual always predominates in the complete

When one begins a quest which ends in the acquisition of a
substitute for that of which he is in search, it cannot be claimed
he has reached his goal.  Logically the search was foredoomed to
failure.  The warning is constantly present, and repeatedly given,
that such will be the case.  The Entered Apprentice is told: "Ask,
and it shall be given you; Seek, and ye shall find; Knock and it
shall be opened unto you." Later he is informed: "you there stand
AS A JUST AND UPRIGHT, etc."; but he is not told: "you t here stand
A, etc." He is "AS" or "LIKE" - no definite statement that HE IS.

In the second degree he is advised he has received light BUT
PARTIALLY, which is the negative statement that HE HAS RECEIVED
PARTIAL LIGHT.  It is assumed to apply at the specific time, but
could as truthfully be said upon completion of the third degree.

The third degree is replete with these veiled hints.  The Candidate
is told that the practice of OPERATING in Masonry has become
"obsolete," and "we now wear our aprons as Fellow-craft." An
outright admission that we do not "OPERATE" on the spiritual plane
of a Master Mason.  Again he is informed he is "about to receive
the statement is made that, no matter what he PRESUMES, he has not
reached his goal; and in the ritual of many of the older j
urisdictions, which have not suffered the changes to which some of
the younger jurisdictions have subjected their rituals (in spite of
obligations to respect ancient landmarks), the frank admission is
PURPOSE." Finally he is told the Lodge will no longer pray for him,
and that he must perform that duty for himself.

Modern Masons, in fact, are only Fellow-craft. THEY ARE NOT MASTER
MASONS! The "True Word," reputedly, was introduced into the Royal
Arch in the late eighteenth century by Dunckerley.  At
approximately that time he is said to have, either personally or
associated with others, revised the "Blue" Lodge ritual, and to
have taken the "True Word" therefrom.  Technically, this would
confine the Master Mason grade to those who have been exalted to
the Royal Arch.  In reality, the Royal Arch does not possess the "W
ord." It is intellectually, logically provable that the "word," so
claimed to be by the Royal Arch, CANNOT BE THE LOST WORD OF A

No degree of Freemasonry can GIVE the candidate the "True Word,"
for none possess it, and if they did they could not communicate it.
THAT IS AN IMPOSSIBILITY! The "True Word," by its inherent nature,
an only be DISCOVERED by the individual, himself.  PREVIOUSLY THE

There have been a few exceptions, forerunners of that Great Human
Race which is to come, who have possessed the "True Word"; but
humanity in general has not advanced to that stage in evolution
where it can comply with the necessary requirements.  As with the
"substitute," it can only be acquired when one has "placed himself
in proper position to receive it"; and that "proper position" is no
posture of the physical body -  IT IS AN ATTITUDE OF SOUL!

Previously, a psychical exposition of "traveling in foreign
countries" was advanced.  The "Foreign Country" therein discussed
was the mental realm - "foreign," it is true, to him who has
previously confined his thinking to the material world of everyday
affairs.  Yet this is but a SUBSTITUTE "foreign country," and is
all that one can hope to enter, being possessed of but a

To him who in actuality has "PASSED" to the degree of Fellow-craft
- who, within himself, has been RAISED TO THE SUBLIME DEGREE OF A
MASTER MASON - comes that wisdom and ability to recognize the true
meaning of "traveling." He discovers that the country in which he
seeks to travel is but a "foreign country" to the "MATERIAL" man;
that it is the TRUE HOME-LAND of the SPIRITUAL MAN - that it is THE