The Grand Lodge Family


                                                  ARTICLE NO. 31



                          THE GRAND LODGE FAMILY



          I believe there exists only a hazy understanding of the
organization of our Grand Lodge, of the relationship of the lodges
to the Grand Lodge and Grand Lodge officers, of the relationship of
one Grand Lodge to another, and how all this came into being.  What
is a regular Grand Lodge?  What is an irregular or clandestine
Grand Lodge?  What about Grand Lodge powers, offices, titles,
regalia, etc.?  My aim is to give you a picture of the great
Masonic Grand Lodge family.

          In early days the Craft had no Grand Master and a warrant
was not necessary.  Masons had an inherent right to assemble, and
there was no Grand Lodge or other ruling authority over them.

          The first Grand Lodge was formed in 1717 by four old
lodges in London.  These lodges claimed they had been "neglected by
Sir Christopher Wren", who, they said, was then Grand Master.  They
met at the Goose and Gridiron Tavern, formed a Grand Lodge, and
elected Anthony Sayer as Grand Master.

          The first Grand Lodge was composed of the Masters and
Wardens of recognized Lodges in England.  A Grand Lodge was formed
in Ireland in 1725, and in Scotland in 1736.  All Grand Lodges
recognized by us today must derive their origin directly or
indirectly from one of those three Grand Lodges.

                      The Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia

          In 1727, Major Erasmus James Philipps was a member of a
commission to adjust a boundary dispute between Massachusetts and
Rhode Island.  He was made a Mason in Boston in that year, and on
his return to Annapolis Royal in 1738 was granted a commission by
Henry Price, Acting Provincial Grand Master, to found a lodge at
Annapolis Royal.  This was the first lodge founded in Nova Scotia. 
In the next hundred years, Masonry spread in Nova Scotia until by
the mid-Nineteenth Century there were two Grand Bodies:  a
Provincial Grand Lodge under the Grand Lodge of England, and a
District Grand Lodge under the Grand Lodge of Scotland.  In 1866,
the Scottish lodges united to form the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. 
Three years later, the English lodges joined the young Grand Lodge,
"the only true and legitimate source of Masonic authority within
Nova Scotia".  As such it exercises Masonic authority, executive,
legislative, and judicial, within the Province.


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Powers of a Grand Lodge:  The powers of a Grand Lodge are not
derived or conferred on it by any outside body, such as Parliament
or the Provincial Legislature, nor are they restricted to the
written Constitution.  they are inherent and no consent is
necessary from the State and the State cannot cancel them.

          The Grand Lodge has supreme power and authority over the
Craft.  It is autocratic in its powers.  It is the Supreme Court of
Appeal in the Craft in Nova Scotia and from it there is no appeal. 
All lodges must obey its edicts without question.  All Masons swear
obedience to its authority.  On his installation, every Worshipful
Master declares that he will "hold in veneration the original
rulers and patrons of the Order and their regular successors,
supreme and subordinate, and submits to the awards and resolutions
of his brethren in Grand Lodge convened", etc., and also that he
will "pay homage to the Grand Master for the time being, and ...
conform to every edict of the Grand Lodge."

          The Grand Lodge is the only authority which can warrant
a lodge, and all lodges continue under its authority and control. 
It is the only authority which can enact Masonic law that is
binding on the Craft in Nova Scotia.  It can expel brethren and
erase lodges.  The Grand Master and his officers are a "Board of
Directors" managing the affairs of the whole craft, not a super-
body demanding unquestioned obedience and accountable only to
itself.  The Grand Lodge is the Craft and the Craft is the Grand
Lodge.  Such an organization as the Grand Lodge (a) guarantees the
regularity of every lodge, (b) preserves the landmarks, ancient
traditions, customs, ritual, and all the inheritance of the past,
(c) ensures application of the same laws among all Freemasons in
the jurisdiction, (d) ensures your membership in the Craft to you
everywhere in the world.

          You are the Grand Lodge.  At a Grand Lodge communication
you are admitted in person; you elect in your lodges your official
representatives.  The Grand Lodge makes laws for you.  The Grand
Master, elected by you, is over the Craft.  The Grand Lodge
proceedings are printed for you and contain full reports,
statistics, appointments, etc.  Your ideas for improvement can come
before Grand Lodge for consideration and possible action.  The
Grand Lodge (that is, the whole Craft) supports and confirms the
lodges' powers and suggestions.  One is the complement of the
other.  What weakens or strengthens one, weakens or strengthens the
other.  The correct title of the Grand Lodge is "The Grand Lodge of
Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masons of Nova Scotia".  It is
incorporated by the Nova Scotia Legislature in 1875, but, even
without incorporation, no other body is, or would be entitled to
that name.

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Membership:  Membership in Grand Lodge is confined for convenience
to the Masters of lodges and their Wardens while in office, and all
Past Masters, but only while they are members of lodges in Nova
Scotia.  If a Warden is not advanced to Master and ceases to be a
Warden, he ceases to be a member of Grand Lodge.

Voting in Grand Lodge:  Each member of Grand Lodge has one vote. 
Every Lodge has three votes:  these are given for the lodge by the
Master and Wardens.  If only one of the three is present, he has
the three votes for the lodge.  A Master Mason or a Past Master may
hold the proxy for his lodge and cast three votes (including his
own as a Past Master).  If the per capita assessment has not been
paid, neither the Master nor Wardens have a vote.

Officers of Grand Lodge:  The Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master,
Senior Grand Warden, and Junior Grand Warden are elected annually. 
The District Deputy Grand Masters are elected by the Past Masters
of their lodges and appointed by the Grand Master.  The Grand
Treasurer and Grand Secretary are appointed by the Grand Master on
the recommendation of the Advisory Board.  The Grand Historian,
Grand Lecturer, Grand Chaplain, Senior and Junior Grand Deacon,
Grand Superintendent of Works, Grand Director of Ceremonies, Grand
Sword Bearer, Grand Organist, Grand Pursuivant, Grand Stewards, and
Grand Tyler re appointed by the Grand Master.  The District Grand
Chaplains are selected by the District Deputies and appointed by
the Grand Master.

          The Grand Master is the administrative and executive
authority.  The Grand Historian is the authority on Masonic
history, in particular of our own Grand Lodge and the Constituent
Lodges; the Grand Lecturer is the authority on our ritual and
chairman of the Board of Ritual.  A Board of Jurisprudence composed
of the Past Grand Masters is our judicial authority.

          In making appointments several things must be kept in
mind:  lodges presently represented by elected officers or District
Deputies, lodges recently represented by elected or appointed
officers, the activity and interest of the Past Masters and their
fitness for office; by the interest of the Grand Lodge is
paramount.  The outside world judges the Craft by those who are its
leaders.

          In appointing District Deputy Grand Masters, the Grand
Master usually gives each lodge in the district its turn, but a
brother's activity, interest, and fitness must be considered.  They
are the representatives of the Grand Master and as such inspect the
work of the lodges, examine the books, and investigate any
difficulties that may arise.

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Grand Lodge Titles:  Grand Master and Past Grand Masters are termed
Most Worshipful; Deputy Grand Master, District Deputy Grand
Masters, Grand Wardens, Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, Grand
Historian, Grand Lecturer, Grand Chaplain (Present and Past) are
terms Right Worshipful; all other Grand Lodge officers both present
and past are terms Very Worshipful; Masters and Past Masters are
termed Worshipful.

Aprons:  Grand Lodge aprons have a dark blue border and are
decorated with gold trimming and ornaments.  Lodge aprons have a
light blue border and silver tassels, but no gold or silver braid
or fringe.  Lodges 100 years old are authorized by Grand Lodge to
use gold tassels and may, if they wish, adopt an intermediate shade
of blue border.  Lodges 150 years old are authorized by Grand Lodge
to add a strip of gold braid down the centre of the blue border. 
A few lodges have been authorized to adopt distinctive aprons.

Warrants:  A regulation adopted by the Grand Lodge of England in
1717 declared the privilege of assembling as a lodge belonged only
to lodges under warrant - except the four original immemorial
lodges.  In England the Grand Master grants a warrant to a new
lodge; in Canada and the United States of America the Grand Master
grants a dispensation.  The lodge's work under the dispensation is
submitted to Grand Lodge which may if it sees fit, grant a warrant. 
The lodge warrant or dispensation must always be present in the
lodge when at work.  If it is destroyed another must be obtained. 
If it is not in or is taken out of the lodge room, the Master's
authority instantly ceases.

Laws:  The laws governing the Craft are of two types:
     (1)  Unwritten Law:  The law which existed and developed
          before Grand Lodges were formed; what we have inherited
          from past centuries; what some call the "Ancient
          Landmarks" derived from the old charges; our ritual,
          traditions, and usage.  This law governs all Grand Lodges
          and every individual Freemason, and cannot be abrogated
          by any Grand Master or by any Grand Lodge.  The nature,
          purposes, and principles of Freemasonry are defined by
          this unwritten law.  It cannot be amended, repealed, or
          changed by any human power, Masonic or civil.
     (2)  Written Law:  The Book of Constitutions, the Monitor, the
          Edicts and Decisions of Grand Masters, the Legislation,
          Rulings, and Decisions of Grand Lodge, and the Authorized
          Work.




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Finances:  How is Grand Lodge financed?
     (1)  Administration expenses such as salaries, rent, printing,
          postage, etc. are met from two sources:
          (a)  Fees from diplomas, dispensations and warrants for
               new lodges, travel certificates, etc.
          (b)  An annual assessment paid by all members to meet
               these expenses.
     (2)  A Board of Trustees operates the Nova Scotia Freemasons'
          Home at Windsor and makes grants to outside cases which
          cannot be accommodated in the Home.  This expense is met
          by:
          (a)  a five dollar ($5.00) fee from every initiate,
          (b)  an annual assessment on every member,
          (c)  the income from the Endowment Fund,
          (d)  guests' assigned pensions and contributions.
     (3)  The Masonic Foundation of Nova Scotia makes grants from
          the income on invested funds for the relief of distressed
          worthy brothers, their widows, and orphans, and for other
          charitable undertakings.

                             The Grand Master

          The Grand Master is the head of the Craft.  His title is
"Most Worshipful the Grand Master of Masons in Nova Scotia."  He is
the Grand Lodge when the Grand Lodge is not in session.  He is the
chief administrative officer of the Craft.  He is not bound to
consult other officers.  He presides in Grand Lodge and over the
Craft.  He has more powers than Grand Lodge has.  He makes all
appointments to offices and committees.  He appoints District
Deputy Grand Masters.  He appoints Grand Representatives from our
Grand Lodge to other Grand Lodges and nominates suitable local
brethren to be appointed Grand Representatives of other Grand
Lodges near our Grand Lodge.  He grants dispensations to form new
lodges.  He conducts all Grand Lodge ceremonies such as: 
dedications, corner-stone layings, constitution and consecration of
lodges.  He can convene any lodge and preside over it; he can
inspect their work and records; he can suspend brethren and lodges;
he can make rulings on the law of the Craft; in fact, his inherent
and traditional powers are well nigh absolute.  He is the guardian
of dignity, honour, and sovereignty of Grand Lodge.  Great
deference and respect are paid to the Grand Master, and rightly so. 
Other Grand Lodges see only the Grand Master.  As he is often the
symbol and standard by which many Grand Lodges are judged, his
standard of character and attainments should be the highest.

          He should be cautious, of sound judgment and integrity;
not overbearing and haughty, not a lover of mere display.  He
should 

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be approachable, patient, forbearing, impartial, opposed to
innovation, and exemplifying the Masonic virtues of Fortitude,
Prudence, Temperance, and Justice.  This is certainly the ideal,
though it may be a pattern of perfection impossible of attainment.

                          Grand Lodges in General

Territorial Jurisdiction:  The Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia is the
only Grand Lodge in Nova Scotia and, with the exception of Royal
Standard Lodge which remains under the English Constitution, has
sovereign and exclusive jurisdiction over Masons and Masonry in
Nova Scotia.  The American theory of jurisdiction differs somewhat
from the English and is not well settled.  American writers claim
that the jurisdiction of a Grand Lodge is co-terminous with
political jurisdiction; that is, only one Grand Lodge for every
State, with exclusive sovereignty within the State.  This theory is
not recognized by England, Scotland, Ireland, or indeed by
Massachusetts, which has lodges in the Canal Zone, Cuba and Chile,
or New York which has lodges in Syria and Lebanon, or California
which has lodges in Hawaii, or Washington which has lodges in
Alaska.

Formation:  To form a Grand Lodge, at least three lodges in a State
where there is no existing Grand Lodge must cooperate.  The various
steps to be taken are:

     (1)  Each lodge appoints delegates to a convention.
     (2)  The convention solemnly decides to form a Grand Lodge.
     (3)  An official request is then sent to all lodges to send
          their Masters and Wardens to a second convention.
     (4)  At the second convention a resolution is adopted
          declaring the meeting a Grand Lodge.
     (5)  A constitution is adopted.
     (6)  A Grand Master and other officers are elected.
     (7)  Steps are taken to obtain the recognition by other
          existing Grand Lodges throughout the world.

Independence:  There is in Freemasonry no supreme world authority. 
Every Grand Lodge is independent and self-governing.  There is,
therefore, a great worldwide family of Grand Lodges.

Recognition:  The Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia adopted the following
principles of recognition in 1925, declaring that it would not
recognize any new Grand Lodge unless:
     (1)  It is formed by three regular lodges.
     (2)  It is independent and self-governing with entire and
          undisputed and exclusive authority over all lodges in the
          jurisdiction.
     
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     (3)  It admits men only.
     (4)  It is based on:
          (a)  an acknowledgement of a belief in God the Father of
               all men,
          (b)  secrecy,
          (c)  the symbolism of operative Masonry,
          (d)  the essentials of our three degrees in Freemasonry,
          (e)  the legend of the Third Degree,
          (f)  primary purposes which are charitable, benevolent,
               educational, religious, excluding controversial
               politics and sectarian religion from its
               activities,
          (g)  an acknowledgement of the Book of the Law as chief
               among the Great Lights.
     (5)  It occupies exclusive jurisdiction or shares by mutual
          consent territory occupied by another recognized Grand
          Lodge.

          Recognition is effected by a resolution of Grand Lodge
after investigation by the Board of Jurisprudence.  This is
followed by an exchange of Grand Representatives and
intervisitation by the members of the two jurisdictions. The
Commission on Information for Recognition of the Conference of
Grand Masters of Masons in North America is most helpful in
supplying information.

          In 1972, the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia enjoyed fraternal
relations with 114 Grand Lodges:
          England, Scotland, Ireland...........3 Grand Lodges
          Canada...............................8   "      "
          Australia and New Zealand............7   "      "
          United States of America............49   "      "
          West Indies..........................3   "      "
          Central America......................6   "      "
          Europe..............................13   "      "
          South America.......................17   "      "
          Asia.................................7   "      "
          Africa...............................1   "      "
                                             114   "      "

Clandestine Masonry:  Clandestine is a French word meaning hidden,
secret, irregular, illogical.  A Clandestine lodge is one formed
without the consent of a Grand Lodge or, if legally formed,
continues working after is warrant is revoked.  A clandestine Grand
Lodge is one irregularly formed or formed of clandestine lodges or
not adhering to recognized principles.


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Grand Representatives:  Grand Representatives are "ambassadors"
from other Grand Lodges in fraternal relations with our Grand
Lodge.  The Grand Master nominates Nova Scotia brethren to other
Grand Masters for appointment.  Usually he selects active brethren
who have attained the rank of Right Worshipful.  They are expected
to answer the roll call at annual communications at least once in
every three years and to forward to the Grand Lodges they have the
honour to represent a summary of the proceedings.

                                Conclusion

          Freemasonry is the crystallized result of centuries of
growth, practice, and experience.  No group of men at any time sat
down and planned it.  It grew to fit the needs of the situation as
it developed.  It is like a great mosaic, yet flexible and
adaptable to local conditions and needs, adhering to certain great
principles called "Landmarks", and continuing and maintaining its
identity with the Craft in previous years.  Our Grand Lodge of Nova
Scotia, though a small Grand Lodge, has splendid traditions, a
wonderful history, and a high place among Grand Lodges.

          The continuation of this huge reputation depends on you,
your industry on behalf of the Craft, your interest in our history,
your respect for Masonic traditions, your regard for those who
uphold the dignity and honour of the Craft.  The Grand Master is a
figure who passes across the stage and disappears, but the Grand
Lodge and the Craft go on forever.  You are the Grand Lodge; you
are the Craft.  On you depends the present and the future of our
ancient and beloved Order in this ancient and beloved Province of
Nova Scotia.


THIS PAPER WAS PREPARED BY M.W. BROTHER R.V. HARRIS P.G.M., PGS, OF
THE GRAND LODGE OF NOVA SCOTIA.  IT WAS DONATED TO THE BOARD OF
MASONIC EDUCATION BY R.W. BROTHER G. VICKERS, PGS, OF THE GRAND
LODGE OF NOVA SCOTIA.