The Story of Freemasonry


THE STORY OF FREEMASONRY
by W.G. Sibley
THE LION'S PAW CLUB
1913

I

The Initiation into the Ancient Persian Magi, and a
Curious Legend of Hiram Abif, Solomon, and the Queen of
Sheba.

Thousands of years ago there was a wonderful secret
organization in Persia whose underground quarters and
equipment for the ceremonial admission of men who
sought membership in it were on so large a scale, and
involved so much time, thought, skill and expense that
compared with it, the most elaborate and costly
spectacular productions on the modern stage seem
paltry.

A man applied for initiation into this society. To test
his sincerity and fitness he was subjected to a period
of probation which continued through several months,
and was undergone in utter solitude in the silence &
darkness of a subterranean cave.  This ordeal had
dethroned the reason of more than one who had
undertaken it; and was concluded with a fast of Fifty
Days' duration.  This is what happened to the candidate
when finally admitted to the Mysteries: 

He was led by a grotesque figure to a dangerous
precipice, from which he felt his way to the deep
interior of a gloomy cavern, where he was confronted by
a hideous object which directed him toward a place
whence came the howls of ravenous wild beasts. 
Suddenly seized by unseen hands he was thrust into the
faintly lighted den of animals and instantly attacked
by what seemed to be lions, tigers, wolves and other
vicious beasts, but were in fact members of the Society
cunningly made up to resemble them.

Through this horrible place he had been directed to
make his way, and was tossed, pulled, trampled upon and
buffeted before he escaped, covered with bruises and
genuine wounds, into another cavern in which resounded
loud peals of thunder, and through which shot
constantly terrifying bursts of flame.  If he fainted
from exhaustion and horror, his senses returned in a
comfortable chamber where delightful music and soothing
perfumes quieted to some extent his agitation.

Then three venerable priests approached him. One of
them threw a Squirming Snake into his bosom, and with
the loathsome reptile chilling his skin he was
conducted to a door from which issued awful cries of
lamentation and despair.  There he beheld a dreadful
representation of men enduring the torments of Hell.

This was followed by seven subterranean journeys to the
scenes of as many appalling perils, each likely to
disturb the stoutest heart and arouse the most trying
emotions.  Then if his strength held out he entered the
Holy of Holies.  It was a splendid apartment in which a
brilliant sun and beautiful stars moved in a miniature
sky, while most ravishing music was heard.  In the
East, seated upon a golden throne, was a presence
before whom the candidate bowed and took the oath of
the Order.  Such was the initiation of the Persian
Magi, the society founded by Zoroaster, whose extreme
antiquity is certified by both Aristotle & Plato. 
There were other Mysteries in other lands, in the times
of antiquity - those of Isis in Egypt, of Cabiri in
Phoenicia, of Sabazian in Rome, and the Eleusinian in
Greece.  And from among them all, Freemasonry alone has
emerged as a living influence on modern civilized
society, and is richest in legend, tradition, and
historic facts. One very curious tale is told by an
English author and student of antiquities, whose
description of the initiation of the Persian Magi has
already been rehearsed.  It is a legend of Hiram Abif,
the master architect and engineer at the building of
King Solomon's Temple, who, according to tradition,
assisted Solomon in founding the Masonic Order. 

When the Queen of Sheba visited Solomon, that Prince of
Riches and Glory, who had an appreciative eye for
beauty in Women, as well as in Architecture, fell a
victim to the seductive charms of his visitor, and
sought her hand in marriage.  After consideration, she
accepted the proposal.  Later, when repeated requests
had secured the presentation to her of Hiram Abif,
whose work on the Temple was a revelation to her of
extraordinary ability, the son of the tribe of
Naphthali cast a look into her eyes which drew her
heart to him.  Solomon, wise in the ways of women,
instantly became aware of the impression made on the
Queen by his great architect, and was stirred by
jealousy. Chagrined, he set about to destroy his
friend.

The Queen met Hiram in a grove near Jerusalem when none
but her maids were present.  He was silent and
thoughtful, but soon declared his love.  She threw
herself into his arms, their lips met, and she
rapturously responded to his words of affection.
Realizing that Solomon would not approve their mating,
they planned to leave Jerusalem at different times, and
meet in Arabia.  Meanwhile Solomon had hinted to
certain workmen on the temple that Hiram's death would
be pleasing to him, and gave them an excuse for
quarrelling with him.  As a consequence Hiram was slain
while seeking exit from the temple.

This legend is so at variance with Masonic tradition
and history that it cannot be accepted, although it
gives additional interest to a Biblical character whose
memory will live as long as Freemasonry exists among
men.  It is printed as a curious specimen chosen from
among many apocryphal tales which found their way into
print in Europe during the Eighteenth Century, and were
widely circulated among readers of books. 

II

Attempts to Exterminate Freemasonry.

Freemasonry has at different times been attacked by
vigorous and malicious enemies whose purpose was
Deadly.  Many efforts have been made by Church & State
in European countries to suppress  and destroy it, a
notable anti-Masonic popular excitement once arose and
flourished in the United States, and the closing years,
of the nineteenth century witnessed in France a
remarkable mystification of the enemies of the
fraternity. 

Half a dozen serious attempts to annihilate the order
were made when its purposes were not so clearly
understood as they are now, and before the Roman
Catholic Church, its most inveterate enemy, began
openly and actively its unrelenting warfare against it. 
An act of Parliament in 1429 made felons of all Masons
who confederated in chapters, and subjected them to
punishment by imprisonment and fines, but it was never
enforced.  In 1561 Queen Elizabeth ordered the grand
lodge of England broken up, and forbade Masons to meet
in their lodges, but the initiation of a number of her
officers into the order, and their subsequent
importunities to her, induced her to withdraw the
obnoxious command.  France passed a law abolishing
Masonry in 1637, owing to a suspicion that it might be
dangerous to the government, but public opinion
nullified it. The Empress Maria Theresa of Germany was
influenced against Masonry in 1747 by ladies of her
court who had been unable to cajole or exhort its
secrets from their husbands, and issued an order that
Masons should be arrested while engaged in their lodge
work, but the Emperor Joseph I, who was a member of the
Fraternity, persuaded the misled woman to give up her
foolish project, to the intense disappointment and
chagrin of the court ladies, whose husbands perhaps had
read LaFontaine's sage observation that "nothing is so
oppressive as a secret; women find it difficult to keep
one."

The Great Council of Berne in Switzerland, a Protestant
tribunal,  denounced Masonry in 1745, decreeing that
"citizens and subjects who are actually known to be
Freemasons shall be obliged immediately to abjure, by
oath, the engagements they have taken in said society,"
and providing that those unknown, who did not renounce
the order voluntarily, should be heavily fined and made
ineligible for any employment in the Republic.  Owing
to the hostile action of the synod at Stirling in 1745,
and the synod at Edinburgh in 1755, the associate of
Scotland in 1757 ordered Masons to be questioned as to
whether on initiation they were required to give up all

metal on their persons, if the Bible was used in their
superstitious ceremonies, and if the passage in I
Kings, vii-21, was read to them.  All who refused to
answer were "reputed under scandal" and declared
"incapable of admission to sealing ordinances." Those
who did answer were purged by rebuke and admonition,
and strictly charged not to entice others into the
snare of Freemasonry.

Frederick I of Sweden forbade Freemasonry in his
dominions in 1740 under penalty of death, following the
example of King Frederick Augustus III of Poland the
year before. In 1751 Charles III of Spain prohibited
Masonic rites in Naples.  A Venice lodge was abolished
by the transportation of its members, and in 1818 John
VI issued a prohibitory edict from Brazil 

During the latter part of the eighteenth century
Freemasonry was attacked in England both by ridicule
and by clerical utterances.  At that time the
fraternity's dignity and serious character were in
marked contrast to the frivolity of numerous other
social societies in that country, which were almost
without exception bibulous bodies, and generally
envious of Masonry.  The members of these convivial
organizations, of which the song, the glass, and the
racy anecdote were the essence, delighted in deriding
and satirizing Freemasons, one of the numerous rhymes
of the period describing them as

"A set of ranting, roaring, rumbling fellows, 
Who meet to sing old rose and burn the bellows.
Champagne and claret, dozens in a jerk, 
And then they say how hard they've been at work.
Next for the secret of their own wise making,
Hiram and Boaz, and Grand Master Jachin! 
Poker and tongs! the sign! the word! the stroke !
'Tis all a nothing, and 'tis all a joke."
They were also charged with practising black arts, such
as "Raising the Devil in a Circle," and branding
initiates with a red-hot poker.  Several books were
printed to prove the truth of similar foolish stories,
and one of them was seriously entitled "Masonry the way
to Hell; a Sermon wherein it is clearly Proved, both
from Reason and from Scripture, that All who profess
the Mysteries are in a state of Damnation."

The hundred years preceding 1793 were prolific in
amusing publications that profess to be exposures of
Freemasonry, written by French and English romancers.
No less than forty-five of these productions are to be
found in Masonic libraries, where they are preserved as
curiosities; they bear such titles as "An Account of
the Freemasons," "The Grand Mystery of Freemasons
Discovered," "Masonry Dissected," "The Secrets of
Masonry Made Known," "A Master Key to Freemasonry,"
"The Three Distinct Knocks," "The Freemason Stripped
Naked," "Freemasonry of the Ladies," and "The Vail
Withdrawn"

The Roman Catholic Church viewed Freemasonry with deep
suspicion when it first began to spread over Europe as
a confessedly oath-bound secret organization.  When it
learned that Masons would not reveal their secrets in
the confessional, and that their society taught Freedom
of Conscience and other tolerant and liberal
principles, the suspicion settled into deep-seated
hatred, which was augmented from time to time by the
undoubted participation of French and Italian lodges in
political adventures inimical to the temporal power of
the Pope.  The Roman Church had sufficient influence to
cause the promulgation of a government edict for the
abolishment of Masonry in Holland in 1735.  An
Amsterdam lodge defied the order, and continued to meet
secretly.  They were discovered and arrested in their
lodge, acknowledged that they were Masons, swore that
their society taught nothing repugnant to the laws of
God or man, submitted a proposition that the court
before which they were brought should select some man
in whom it had implicit confidence, for initiation, and
they would abide by his judgment.  This was done, the
town clerk became a Mason and so strongly approved the
teachings of the fraternity that the magistrate himself
applied for admission and was accepted, to his great
satisfaction.

Pope Clement XII issued a bull in 1738, the first of a
series of papal fulminations, in which he denounced
Freemasonry because it admitted to its altars men of
All Religions, and imposed obligations its members
would not reveal at the confessional.  The following
year he published an edict threatening all who visited
lodges with a fine of one thousand crowns of gold and
the torture of the rack.  Under this vicious decree, in
Spain and Portugal, several Masons were imprisoned and
tortured by the Inquisition, which first sought to
extort from them the secrets of the society by the
infliction of inhuman torments, and failing to
accomplish that purpose sent them to the galleys, on
which they were subjected to the most offensive
indignities and frightful cruelties 

One Freemason, John Coustos, lived to tell the story,
of this suffering from the Inquisition at Lisbon, in
Portugal. He was a native of Switzerland, whose parents
took him to England in 1716.  A lapidary by profession,
after twenty-two years' residence in London, and five
in Paris, he went to Lisbon to work on precious stones. 
There, in various private house, he practised
Freemasonry with his brethren, and an Inquisitive
woman, at confession, told of the meetings.  The priest
informed the Inquisition, which seized him in March,
1743, and threw him into a dungeon, where he was
forbidden to speak, and could hear nothing but the
groans & dismal cries of other prisoners.  A few days
later he was led to the Inquisitors and charged with
speaking injuriously of the Roman religion, which he
denied and then replaced in his dungeon for reflection. 
Three days later he was again before them and was
requested to explain the nature of Freemasonry, which
he did so far as consistent with his obligations.  Then
he was taken to another & deeper dungeon, where he laid
in darkness seven weeks, during which he was taken
before the Inquisitors three times. The first time they
insisted that he should reveal the secrets of the
order, which he declined to do.  The second time they
threatened him, called him a heretic and said he was
damned, after advising him to turn Roman Catholic
before it was too late.  The last time, after arguing
manfully for his rights, he was doomed to suffer the
tortures of the holy office for not revealing the
secrets of Masonry.  He was stripped naked, except for
his drawers, an iron collar fastened to a scaffold was
put around his neck, a ring fixed to each foot, and his
limbs tightly stretched.  Small ropes were wound around
his arms and thighs and passed through the holes under
the scaffold and drawn tight by four men.  These ropes
cut his flesh to the bone in several places.  Four
times Custos refused to reveal the secrets, and at each
refusal the utmost strength of his torturers was
applied to the ropes, his judges declaring that his
obstinacy would make him guilty of self murder.  Six
weeks later when his wounds were partially recovered,
he was again conducted to the Chamber of Horrors, where
his arms were slowly drawn backward by an engine until
his shoulders were dislocated and blood came from his
mouth.  This hellish torture was inflicted three times,
when he was returned to his cell and rough physicians
reduced the dislocations.

In two months he was again taken to the torture room. 
This time a heavy iron chain was wrapped twice around
his arms and body terminating at his wrists.  The ends
of the chain were attached to ropes running through
pulleys, which when stretched pressed and bruised his
body, and put his wrists and shoulders out of joint. 
Twice in one day he was subjected to this torture. Four
weeks after he was still unable to lift hand to his
mouth, his body was frightfully swollen, and he
suffered such dreadful anguish as may not be imagined.
He was then condemned to be a galley-slave for four
years.  There the friars of the convent of Corpo Santos
offered him release if he would turn Roman Catholic,
but his stout Swiss heart would not consent.  Word of
his condition reaching his brother-in-law, that
relative was able to interest the Duke of Newcastle in
the case, and finally King George II, through the
British minister Compton at Lisbon, demanded and
secured his release, as a British subject, in October,
1744, and he arrived in London Dec. 15 of the same
year, where he wrote a detailed account of his
sufferings.

Papal constitutions, edicts, epistles, allocutions and
encyclicals of varying degrees of harshness were issued
against the older by Clement XII in 1738; by Benedictus
XIV in 1751; by Pius VII in 1814; by Leo XII in 1825;
by Pius VIII in 1829; by Gregory XVI in 1832; by Pius
IX in 1846, 1865, 1869 and 1873, and by Leo XIII in
1884, 1890 and 1892.

The papal allocution of 1865 pronounces Freemasonry
"monstrous, impious and criminal, full of snares and
frauds - a dark society; the enemy of the Church of
God, and dangerous to the security of Kingdoms;
inflamed with a burning hatred against religious and
legitimate authority, and desirous of overthrowing all
rights human and divine." The epistle of 1873 was in no
better temper. It attributed Masonry to Satan, and
declared the Evil One founded it and contrived its
development.  These fierce denunciations of Pius IX are
of peculiar interest to Masons, because the records of
the Italian Grand Lodge show His infallible Holiness to
have been expelled from the fraternity after his
election as pope. Victor Emanuel, having been aided by
Garibaldi, a 33 degree Mason, in overthrowing the
temporal power of the papacy and establishing religious
and constitutional liberty in Italy, was informed that
the Pope, when a young man, had been Initiated, Passed
& Raised in a Masonic lodge.  He therefore caused him
to be tried for repeated violations of his obligations
to the Masonic brethren.  Pius IX was found guilty,
expelled, and the proclamation of his expulsion, signed
by Victor Emanuel, then king of Italy and grand master
of Masons in that country, was sent all over the
Masonic world.

The encyclical "Humanus genus" of 1884 declared that
the Masonic order sought to overthrow the church of
God, which insane desire was recognized by the Pope as
the quenchless hate and thirst for revenge of Satan
against God.  The immediate effect of this was to
convince the credulous that Masonry was Devil-worship,
and Leo's accusation was given a tinge of excuse by the
extraordinary action of the Masonic grand orient of
Paris a short time before.  That adventurous body
removed from its conditions of membership belief in God
and in immortality, an act of such gross infidelity to
the first principles and fundamental laws of
Freemasonry the world over, that the justly indignant
Masonic authorities in other countries at once sundered
all relations with the recreant and degenerate French
organization.  In 1890, and again in 1892, Leo XIII
issued additional exhortations against Masonry as an
organization waging war against both religion and
civilization.

Naturally these expressions from the head of
Catholicism were echoed by inferior authorities in that
church.  The Bishop of Malta, in a discourse on a Malta
lodge in 1843, remarked:

"We, with anguish at heart, heard long ago of the
creation of this diabolical lodge, this pestilential
pulpit of iniquity and error.  Flee, as from the face
of a venomous serpent, this society, the common sewer
of all filth, endeavouring, though continually in vain,
to vomit forth the things of hell against the
immaculate purity of the holy Catholic religion."

The Catholic World, perhaps the leading literary
magazine published by the church in America, in 1875
spoke of the "hideous loathsomeness of this vile
association." Six years later it said that
"Freemasonry, as a secret society, is dangerous to our
free institutions; as a craft it is obnoxious to the
true spirit of humanity.  No one can seriously question
that the Catholic Church, in prohibiting her children
from becoming members of such secret organizations, has
deserved well of the country and in this one respect
particularly has done much for the preservation of our
public institutions." In 1893 it declared that the
secret society is the deadliest enemy to religion and
social order."
These sweeping and bitter attack upon the character and
influence of Freemasonry by the authorities of the
Roman Catholic Church, along with many others from the
same source too numerous and lengthy to quote or even
summarize here, have had the effect on Masons which
might naturally be expected.  Almost without exception
their attitude toward the Church of Rome is that of
enmity.  When a Mason becomes a Catholic he renounces
the Order, and when a Catholic becomes a Mason he is
excommunicated from that Church.

That has been the condition of affairs between Masonry
and Roman Catholicism from the days of the foul
unspeakable Inquisition.


III

Leo Taxil's Remarkable Books about Murder, the Devil,
Women, & the Black Mass, in the High Degrees .

The most Absurd of all the entanglements into which the
Roman Catholic Church has been drawn by its detestation
for the society - a tale of ludicrous credulity and
blind fanaticism unparalleled in the closing decade of
the last century, has  been related with much
particularity by several writers.

Gabriel Jogand-Pages was born at Marseilles, France, in
1854.  Fortunate in educational advantages during
youth, on arriving at manhood he adopted journalism as
his avocation.  Talented, audacious, and holding both
religion and decency in contempt, his writings
attracted so much attention that he sought a larger
field in Paris, where he published an infidel daily
paper and wrote many irreligious books that obtained a
wide circulation.  One of them was a scandalous work
entitled "The Secret Amours of Pius IX," for the
publication of which he was heavily fined.

In 1885 this reckless young man saw in Leo XIII's
"Humanus genus" a field for both revenue and the
humiliation of the Roman Catholic Church, which he most
heartily despised. He pretended conversion, suppressed
his sceptical books, and was absolved by the Papal
Nuncio in Paris, Mgr. di Rende, from a number of
excommunications recorded against him.  With ardor born
of desire for money and ambition to dupe the church
which had received him into its fold, he produced,
under the pseudonym of Leo Taxil, a series of books
called Complete Revelations of French Masonry, which
attracted great attention in Europe, were translated
into German, Italian and Spanish, and were read by
hundreds of thousands of people. In 1881 he had been
made an Entered Apprentice, but was soon after expelled
from the fraternity because of indiscretions of which
he was guilty.  With reckless disregard for facts, and
unrestrained by his ignorance of Masonry, he gave his
extraordinary imaginative powers full play, and with a
fecundity of detail and illustration truly remarkable,
represented the rites of the craft to be a hideous form
of Devil-Worship.  One entire volume he devoted to
Female Masons, on which impossible foundation he
constructed a shameful edifice of fiction, full of
shockingly scandalous and beastly fabrications that
were received with delight by the papal authorities,
who saw in them perfect justification for the attitude
of their church toward Masonry

Another one of his books, of which two hundred thousand
copies were sold at 24 francs a copy, charged every
Mason with being a murderer, in spirit if not in fact. 
The following translation of a passage from it explains
the grounds upon which the charge was made:

"Before a man is admitted to the higher degrees he is
blindfolded & taken into a room where a live sheep is
lying on the floor.  The animal's mouth and feet are
secured and it is clean shaven, so that its skin feels
to the touch like that of a human being.

"Next to the animal a man is placed, who breathes
heavily, feigning to struggle against imaginary
enemies. The candidate is given to understand that the
sheep's body is that of a disloyal Mason who gave away
the secrets of the order and must die according to some
ancient law, the candidate being made executioner, as a
warning to him.

"Then he is given a big knife, and after some
ceremonial is persuaded to 'kill the traitor,' that is,
plunge the knife repeatedly into the body of the sheep,
which he imagines to be that of an unknown human being,
his brother.  

"Thus every Mason is a murderer in spirit at least, if
not actually, for sometimes treacherous Masons take the
place of the animal."

This story drew forth denials from such distinguished
Freemasons as Bismarck, the Prince of Wales, and
Emperor William I which served greatly to stimulate the
sale of the work.

Invigorated by the credulity of his victims, Taxil
added Spiritualism to his schedule of Masonic practices
and beliefs and told of tables floating in the air and
turning into crocodiles at Masonic meetings, and for
his supposed revelations was honoured by Pope Leo XIII
with the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, a distinguished
mark of the high favour of the Roman hierarchy

High grade Masonry was the most fertile field of
Taxil's grotesque falsifications.  He made Charleston,
South Carolina, the scene of his Luciferan Masonry
because it was the home of Albert Pike, whose labours
as grand commander of the southern supreme council, for
the perfection of the rituals and ceremonials of the
Scottish Rite, have been excelled by no man. Taxil
declared that in the solemn recesses of the consistory
at Charleston, His Satanic Majesty exhibited himself
without disguise - Hoof, Horns, Tail and All, in the
exemplification of the high grades.  A High Priestess
of this Luciferan Masonry was needed and adroitly
contrived for the consternation of the Pope and the
Public, in the person of "Diana Vaughn." She was said
to be the direct descendant of a man to whose embraces
the lascivious Venus-Astarte submitted, and whose life
had been extended thirty-three years for the
propagation of demoniacal designs.  As a girl she
betrothed herself to the Demon Asmodeus, afterwards
appeared before Satan in Charleston, and was by him
consecrated as his Masonic high priestess in the
presence of Albert Pike! She possessed supernatural
powers, such as the ability to turn herself into liquid
and pass through a stone wall, and was a Very Terrible
Personage indeed

All these, and scores of other absurdities were
published month after month in Paris, and read with
avidity in the Vatican. When the Roman ecclesiastical
authorities had been sufficiently horrified by Diana
Vaughn's deviltry, Taxil caused her to be "converted"
as he himself had been.  This astounding change in a
heart familiar with wickedness was alleged to have been
caused by Albert Pike ordering her to Spit Upon & Stab
a Consecrated Host in one of the Masonic rites, and to
utter repulsive blasphemies - deeds which would stir
deep resentment in the Pope's breast.  Diana refused to
comply, repented, and wrote a book which was sent to
Leo XIII in 1895, who, by his secretary Mgr. Vicenzo
Sardi, wrote a letter thanking her and urging her to
continue in her good work against Freemasonry!

One extract, in which Diana describes a Masonic "Black
Mass" - one of scores of tales equally preposterous -
maybe made from this volume;

"In a thick cloud of perfumes the priest ascends the
altar of Satan's Synagogue.

On the table is seen a goat with a human face already
excited by some preliminary homages, intoxicated by
perfumes and adoration.

"The priest opens a box and takes out some wafers.

"The rites performed and the words spoken during the
continuance of the magical ceremony are blasphemous in
character, and the sacred vessel and its contents are
subjected to insult and mockery.  The goat plays the
infernal part, cursing and reviling, and lastly the
following incantation is delivered: Master of the
Esclandres, dispenser of the benefits of crime,
intendant of sumptuous sins and great vices, sovereign
of contempt, preserver of old hatreds and inspirer of
vengeance and misdeeds.'

At this ceremony the children of the choir are clad in
red and wear scarlet caps surmounted by two horns. 
They hold black candles in their hands."

Largely as a result of Leo Taxil's voluminous works,
one of which has 2,000 pages, the Vatican and its
priesthood throughout Europe were aroused to a sense of
impending dangers from the fraternity, and an
anti-Masonic Congress was called to meet at Trent in
September, 1896, to which Leo XIII telegraphed his
blessing.  Its purpose was "to make known to everybody
the immense moral and material evil done by Freemasonry
to the Church and to society, and to seek a remedy by
way of a permanent, international organization against
the craft." A thousand delegates from European
countries attended, among them being thirty-six Roman
Catholic bishops, who found a safe retreat in the
marble cathedral of the Austrian city, where Masonic
lodges are unknown owing to governmental prohibition,
as is also the case in Russia and Poland.  Gabriel
Jogand-Pages, better known as Leo Taxil, was the hero
of the occasion, but his presence did not completely
satisfy the congress.  Diana Vaughn, who for reasons
obvious to Taxil alone, could not appear, was greatly
desired, as a suspicion that she was a myth had
developed in the public press.  The congress, not
entirely convinced by the plausible excuses of Taxil,
entrusted an investigation of her genuineness to a
commission of its members, which of course was unable
to secure proof of her existence.  The pressure on
Monsieur Jogand-Pages finally became so strong that he
announced she would appear in the hall of the
Geographical Society in Paris on Easter Monday, April
19, 1897

On that date and at that place the precious scamp who
had so long revealed in the admiration and confidence
of the princes and priests of Catholicism took the
platform in the presence of a large audience that had
assembled to see and hear Diana Vaughn, formerly the
intimate associate of the Devil, now the repentant
accuser of Masonry.  He made a speech of superb
audacity, in which he told his shocked hearers that his
conversion twelve years before was a pretence, that
Diana Vaughn was a Myth, and that his revelations of
Freemasonry were all Deliberate Lies, put forth for the
sole purpose of playing upon the credulity of the Roman
Catholic Church and making its rulers ridiculous in the
eyes of intelligent men. 

He added that the Bishop of Charleston had long ago
assured the Pope of the falsity of his stories about
Albert Pike: and that the Apostolic Vicar of Gibraltar
had informed Leo XIII that the alleged caves at that
place in which he had represented the Masons as engaged
in foul and atrocious rites, did not exist. In his
chagrin, the Pope had since kept silence.  This
awakened the stunned audience, whose curses, howls and
threats compelled Monsieur Jogand-Pages to seek
security in another quarter under the protection of the
police, where no doubt the results of his daring
exploits afforded him profound satisfaction. That the
abortive chase of twelve years under Taxil's guidance,
after proofs of the iniquity of Freemasonry, filled the
church authorities with deepest disgust, is pleasantly
indicated by a remark attributed to the Canon Mustel,
in which he is represented as declaring that when hell
should swallow Gabriel Jogand-Pages as its filthy prey,
the damned therein would bow their heads under a new
degradation 

Later Taxil, in an interview, says:

"The public made me what I am, the arch-liar of the
period, for when I first commenced to write against the
Masons my object was amusement pure and simple.  The
crimes laid at their door were so grotesque, so
impossible, so widely exaggerated, I thought everybody
would see the joke and give me credit for originating a
new line of humour.  But my readers wouldn't have it
so; they accepted my fables as gospel truth, and the
more I lied for the purpose of showing that I lied, the
more convinced became they that I was a paragon of
veracity."

Shortly before this disturbing episode movement
originated among American Catholics who were better
informed than Rome of the character, purpose and works
of Freemasonry, and who found the ban of centuries
against the fraternity a stumbling block, to have it
removed, at least in America. This agitation gained
sufficient force to reach the Vatican, but was
ineffective, the church's history in relation to
Freemasonry being wholly inimical to the establishment
of harmony between the two organizations.  Although a
disappointment to many in the Roman church, perhaps
'tis better thus,

"For never can true reconcilement grow, 
When words of deadly hate have pierced so deep."

The decision of the Holy See was announced in January,
1895, by the Roman Catholic Arch-bishop of Cincinnati,
and included three societies besides Freemasonry in its
condemnation.  It instructed the ordinaries of all the
dioceses of the United States "to keep the faithful
away from all and each of the three societies called
the Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, and the Sons of
Temperance."

The first reason given was that "these societies seem
to have a decided influence to lead Catholics toward
Freemasonry, and Freemasonry is under the absolute
condemnation and excommunication of the Church." The
Arch-bishop then called the attention of Catholics "to
the declared and implacable hatred of Masons against
the Church and all religious interests," a hatred he
asserted to be "openly and angrily avowed by the
leading Masons of Europe, and manifested by their
satanic warfare against everything Christian." He
admitted that this spirit did not seem to prevail in
America, but because of the presence of zealous Masons
in the other societies mentioned, "If a Catholic is
drawn into one of them, he is in continual and familiar
association with the admirers of Masonry" and so
"exposed to imbibe their sentiments" and accept their
principles

Although the Freemasons and some other secret
fraternities are not tolerated by Catholicism, an
attempt to restrain Catholics from joining the Knights
of Labour, a secret organization founded by a
Freemason, aroused such opposition among Catholics that
it was abandoned, although it has passwords, grips,
obligations and other features that are condemned as a
part of Freemasonry.  The Grand Army of the Republic,
also organized by Freemasons and members of other
secret bodies, and largely composed of them, is not
under the displeasure of the Vatican, although many
zealous Freemasons hold membership in it.

Whence it appears that diplomacy has a place in the
diplomatic councils of Rome.

The Disappearance of William Morgan & the Anti-Masonic
Excitement which Followed All Over the United States.
The Masonic order in the United States met with a
misfortune in 1826 that seriously crippled it for
twenty years.  In the fall of 1825 there came to
Batavia, Genessee County, New York, a man named 
William Morgan.  He was an operative mason by trade, an
indulger in strong drink, and of bad disposition. If a
regular Freemason, it has never been disclosed where he
was made one, although he received the capitular
degrees in LeRoy, New York, on the avouchment of a
Mason in good standing before the local bodies. 

Before this man's habits were known in Batavia he was
permitted to sign a petition for a new chapter of the
order, but because of discoveries made afterward which
reflected upon his personal character, another petition
was drawn and his name left off.  This angered him, and
he set about the work of attempting an exposure of the
secrets of Freemasonry, visiting frequently a man of
literary culture in New York City who had been expelled
from the order in 1824, and taking as a partner in his
venture a Batavia newspaper editor named Miller.

All concerned in the scheme expected to be made
independently wealthy by the sale of the projected
publication, and while it was being surreptitiously
printed in Miller's office, advertised it in a way
designed to excite the indignation of Freemasons
generally.  During the night of September 10, 1826, the
printing office was fired, presumably by Miller
himself, as he had plenty of water standing about in
barrels and tubs with which to extinguish the flames,
and the incident was used industriously as a further
advertisement of the forthcoming Publication, which on
examination proved to be but a copy of a book
previously printed in England.  On the following day
Morgan was arrested on a charge of larceny said to have
been committed at Canandaigua, fifty miles from
Batavia.  He was taken there, tried, and discharged,
but immediately arrested for debt and thrown into jail.

His wife learning this, went to Canandaigua prepared to
secure his release, where she learned that his New York
indebtedness had been paid, and that he had been
arrested again on the suit of a Pennsylvania creditor
and taken away.  She was greatly alarmed by this
information, hastily returned home, and her friends
despatched a man to trace him.  The messenger came back
with the very, distressing news that when Morgan was
released from jail he had been seized by two men who
thrust him into a carriage while he shouted "Murder"
and drove off with him to a place afterwards learned to
be about three miles from Rochester.  This was the Last
Ever Seen or definitely known of the man, who had
disappeared as completely as if swallowed up in the
bowels of the earth

His abduction was at once, and probably with justice,
regarded by the public as the act of Freemasons, and a
great sensation ensued.  The Governor of New York,
DeWitt Clinton, himself a Mason, was appealed to and
did all in his power to discover the missing man and
apprehend his captors, as did many other prominent
members of the fraternity, but all in vain. Meanwhile
the public - stirred to frenzy by the publication of
false stories in which Morgan was made the victim of a
secret tribunal acting in violation of law, and
executing a horrible sentence on the man who professed
to have exposed secrets - refused to accept the
protestations of admittedly respectable and honourable
Freemasons that his disappearance was Not an act
determined upon by the Masonic organization, but
persisted in denouncing Freemasonry as a whole and
demanding victims for their fury. In April, 1827,
several men were arrested for complicity in the affair,
tried and sentenced to imprisonment.  The next month
seventeen others were arrested and tried on a charge of
removing the missing man to foreign parts, but were
acquitted.

The following October, more than a year after the
celebrated abduction, the putrid body of a drowned man
was found on the beach of Lake Ontario about forty
miles east of the Niagara River.  A political campaign
in which anti-Masonic prejudice ran high, was in the
midst of its emotional course, and the claim was made
that the body was Morgan's.  His widow viewed it and
then Positively Identified it, although the clothing on
it was not that he had worn when he disappeared, and a
coroner's jury solemnly declared it to be the remains
of William Morgan.  The funeral was seized upon by
designing politicians as the occasion for a big
demonstration to influence the votes of citizens in the
approaching elections, and was attended by thousands
whose imprecations and curses made the burial a
travesty on the services that should accompany the
interment of human remains, and turned the ceremony
into a remarkable exhibition of partisan rancour.  The
Freemasons who vied with their enemies in honest
efforts to secure and punish the men who made away with
Morgan, did not believe his widow's identification of
the body was correct, and instituted an investigation. 
They learned that a man named Monroe had been drowned
in Niagara River some weeks before this corpse had been
found, and by questioning his widow and son, elicited
the fact that the clothing he had worn on the day of
his death was the same as that found on the body
claimed by Mrs. Morgan.  Thereupon another inquest was
held, and the body proved beyond a doubt to be that of
Monroe!

An anti-Masonic political party had been formed in
Western New York while these events were happening, its
avowed purpose being to drive from public office, if
not from an honourable connection with society, every
Freemason.  It polled 33,000 votes in 1828, 70,000 in
1829, and 128,000 in 1830, spreading over a majority of
the northern states.  In 1832 it nominated a candidate
for President against Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay, as
both of them were Freemasons and past masters.  The
campaigns in New York and Pennsylvania on the Masonic
issues exceeded in venom any ever known in the country,
not excepting those of the Civil War period.  Masons
were excluded from churches and their children were
denied the privileges of the schools.  But in the
Presidential election of 1832 only one state, Vermont,
was carried by the Anti-Masonic party, and after that
blow to the hopes of its misguided followers it
steadily declined in numbers and influence, and in a
few years dwindled into insignificance and finally
nothingness.

The most distinguished American citizen who
participated in the political persecution of
Freemasonry during these years was Ex-President of the
United States John Quincy Adams. He was greatly
disturbed over the disappearance of Morgan, and wrote a
series of letters and delivered an address, in which
his great ability and a deep-seated prejudice
remarkable in a man of his experience and  culture,
were given full play in bitter denunciation of the
fraternity. He declared that "Masonry ought forever to
be abolished.  It is wrong - essentially wrong - a seed
of evil, which can never produce any good." "The
existence of such an order," he said, "is a foul blot
upon the morals of a community.  The code of Moloch
homicide, embraced in the laws of masonry, will pass to
its appropriate region in Pandemonium, and one of the
sources of error and guilt, prevailing in our land,
will be exhausted and forever drained."

In line with the foregoing is a verse from a popular
campaign song of the time, set to the tune of "Auld
Lang Syne," which ran as follows:

"If aught on earth can men engage,
If aught can make us free,
'Tis one successful war to wage
Against Free Masonry.
The Mason's dark design we know,
The Mason's bloody grip and sign;
We'll lend a band to blot from earth
The Mason's bloody shrine."
The disappearance of Morgan should never have been made
a political issue, because if he was executed under a
Masonic penalty the deed was done not by the authority
of that order but by hot-headed members of it acting
independency of any lodge, and contrary to the
fraternity laws.  But in the passions which then
existed reason found little place, and everything
Masonic was indiscriminately condemned.  Like Monroe's
body, anything was "a good enough Morgan" that would
fan the flames of the persecution of Freemasons among
their bigoted enemies. 

Excepting the constant opposition to Freemasonry
wherever Roman Catholic authority is obeyed, and the
trifling efforts of a very few weak Protestant
churches, there is now comparatively little prejudice
against the order in the civilized world.  American
literature is singularly free from criticisms of it,
and but one English author during the past quarter of a
century is worthy of quotation as a critic.  Charles
William Heckethorn, in his work on Secret Societies of
All Ages and Countries, says:

"Selfishness, an eye to business, vanity, frivolity,
gluttony, and a love of mystery-mongering - these are
the motives that lead men into the lodge.  The facility
and frequency with which worthless characters are
received into the order; the manner in which all its
statutes are disregarded; the dislike with which every
brother who insists on reform is looked upon by the
rest; the difficulty of expelling obnoxious members -
all these too plainly show that the lodge has banished
Freemasonry.  Of true Freemasonry, Freemasons, as a
rule, know nothing.  Genuine Freemasons are
liberal-minded and enlightened men devoted to the study
of nature and the progress of mankind, moral and
intellectual; men devoid of political and religious
prejudices, true cosmopolitans."

The Right Reverend Henry C. Potter, bishop of New York
in the Episcopal Church, in 1901 wrote a letter in
which he said: "Freemasonry, however, is, in my view of
it, a great deal more than a mutual benefit
association.  In one sense, wild and extravagant as the
words may sound, it is the most remarkable and
altogether unique institution on earth.  Will you tell
me of any other that girdles the world with its
fellowship and gathers all races and the most ancient
religions, as well as our own, into its brotherhood?
Will you tell me of any other that is as old or older;
more brilliant in its history; more honoured in its
constituency; more picturesque in its traditions? Today
it lies in the hand of the modern man, largely an
unused tool, capable of great achievement for God, for
country, for mankind, but doing very little.  For one,
I believe that circumstances may easily arise, when the
highest and most sacred of all freedoms being
threatened in this land, Freemasonry may be its most
powerful defender, unifying all minds and commanding
our best citizenship.

"Under such circumstances, fellowship in it should be
regarded, more and more, as a sacred privilege, for
which our best youth should be trained, and to which
they should be advanced step by step, through
preparatory forms and degrees."

The great Edwin Booth said:

"In every realm of thought, in all my research and
study, in all my close analysis of the masterpieces of
Shakespeare, in my earnest determination to make those
plays appear real upon the mimic stage, I have never,
and nowhere, met tragedy so real, so sublime, so
magnificent as the legend of Hiram.  It is substance
without shadow - the manifest destiny of life which
requires no picture and scarcely a word to make a
lasting impression upon all who can understand.  To be
a worshipful master, & to throw my whole soul in that
work, with the candidate for my audience and the lodge
for my stage, would be greater personal distinction
than to receive the plaudits of people in the theatres
of the world."

V

The Tradition and the Evolution of the First Three
Degrees of Freemasonry.

Freemasonry is a beautiful system of ethics, which
cultivates certain great fundamental Moral and
Religious Truths, and impresses them upon the minds of
its votaries by elaborate symbolical ceremonials which
point to the Bible as the great light by which mankind
should be morally and spiritually guided. The Origin,
Purposes and History of this most ancient, famous,
enduring and cosmopolitan of all the world's secret
organizations has been investigated, discussed and
speculated upon by Masonic and other scholars until the
printed records of their researches, arguments and
conclusions form a literature that could find room only
within the limits of a large library, and would require
a life time of study by a perfectly equipped intellect
to weed out all error, reconcile every difference of
opinion and mold the great mass of fact into one
consistent and universally acceptable whole 

If Masonic tradition be not accepted, the explorer who
seeks the beginnings of the Order at once confronts a
Sphinx, the answer to whose enigma has been lost in the
impenetrable clouds of the Dark Ages, or remains hidden
in the deeply covered and forgotten vaults of remote
antiquity.  The first crude written constitutions and
regulations of the Fraternity now in the possession of
historians were made either in the thirteenth or
fourteenth century after Christ.  The writers who have
given Masonry consideration in standard English books
of reference, and have based their conclusions on
visible evidence only, are almost unanimous in fixing
its origin in one or the other of the periods
mentioned.  On the other hand, there are learned
authors who have studied and reasoned exhaustively as
Freemasons, who believe the society existed as an
absolutely secret one two thousand years before any
manuscripts or inscriptions concerning its source and
doctrines were permitted to be made. They hold that the
internal evidence found in the esoteric teachings of
the Order proves that it was created by Solomon, king
of Israel, Hiram, king of Tyre, Hiram Abif, a widow's
son, of the tribe of Naphthali, at the time of the
building of Solomon's temple at Jerusalem, a thousand
years before Christ.

These writers, without an exception, believe that
through the instrumentality of Masonry the five books
of Moses were preserved after the destruction of the
temple by Nebuchadnezzar, during a period of general
lawlessness & disorder lasting nearly five centuries,
and then Discovered and Brought to Light.  With all due
respect for the strict requirements of accuracy in
historical research, it seems quite as reasonable that
Masonry should be transmitted through organized bodies
of intelligent and reverent men, from the time of
Solomon, as that the voluminous poems of Homer should
be preserved during hundreds of years, in all their
purity and exquisite beauty, by bands of minstrels

The discovery of Masonic emblems in the foundation
steps to the pedestal of the Egyptian obelisk at
Alexandria, known as Cleopatra's Needle, is accepted by
many as strong evidence that Freemasonry existed at
least a century before Christ. This great shaft is now
in Central Park, New York City, where it was erected in
1880, after transportation in the hold of a vessel
especially constructed for the purpose.  The stones and
implements showing the Masonic signs and emblems were
placed in the same positions in which they were found
in Egypt, when the obelisk was erected in America.

But it is not the purpose here either to indulge in
speculation upon Uncertainties, or to attempt by
conjecture to arrive at the time hidden facts of
ancient eras.  These pages are intended to convey only
such information of the history, structure, and
character of Masonry, and of the notable assaults and
criticisms that have been made upon it, as is Fully
Authenticated and necessary for those who desire to be
well informed on the subject, keeping in mind all the
while, with some appreciation of its truth, the
statement of the Chevalier de Bonneville that "the span
of ten men's lives is too short a period for the
execution of so formidable an undertaking" as the
production of a universal history of the Masonic craft

The original historical Masonry, as distinguished from
the traditional, had but one degree, as the word is
used technically by the craft, and it was conferred
only on Operative Masons, who made use of it as a means
of recognition among themselves, to keep impostors from
their counsels, and to preserve the organization
necessary for the prosperity of their profession of
practical architecture.  During the Medieval period of
cathedral building in Europe, when magnificent edifices
were erected in Vienna, Rheims, Pisa, York, Paris,
London, Strasburg, Cologne and other cities, by the
Masons, they worked under their own government in
lodges strictly ruled, travelling from place to place
as work required.  In 1702 a London lodge adopted a
regulation extending its privileges to men of different
professions, providing they were regularly approved,
accepted and initiated.  This example was followed by
other lodges, and opened the door of Masonry to men
unskilled in architecture, but enormously increased the
scope and influence of the society, which from that
time developed rapidly into the present wholly
speculative and cosmopolitan system of ethics, in which
the Hindoo, the Parsee, the Jew, the Mohammedan, the
Trinitarian and the Unitarian may conscientiously
participate.

The three degree ceremonials seem to have come into
existence about 1735.  Ten years later they had been
revised by Martin Clare, and in 1777 Preston's
beautiful ritualistic suggestions were accepted and
adopted by the Order.  The requirement of a practical
knowledge of the science of architecture having been
abandoned during this era of evolution, a thorough
understanding of the lofty moral principles inculcated
by the symbolism of the degrees was exacted of the
masters of the craft.  Operative skill yielded and
finally almost wholly disappeared in the society under
the stimulus of the far greater importance of the
nobler virtues, the more widely needed lessons, and the
infinitely higher moral worth, of purely Speculative
Masonry.

Men of prominence in church and state, who were never
actually employed in building, but whose high character
and fine attainments had made them distinguished, were
accepted as Masons, free from the former prerequisite
of operative proficiency, and so became known as Free
and Accepted Masons, whence came Freemasonry as an
evolution of Masonry. Within forty years the
organization, in its improved and enlarged form, spread
into Ireland, Scotland, France, Holland, Russia, Spain,
Italy, Germany and America, attracting to its rites in
all those countries men of profound intellect by whom
its noble principles were deeply cherished

The three degrees of symbolic Masonry, both traditional
and historical, are called Entered Apprentice, Fellow
Craft & Master Mason. Seven or more master masons,
acting under lawful authority, constitute a perfect
lodge, the name properly given both to the
Organization, and to the Place where members meet to
practice their rites.  The principal officers of the
lodge are the Worshipful Master, Senior Warden and
Junior Warden, the master representing Solomon, king of
Israel, the senior warden personating Hiram, king of
Tyre. A meeting of a lodge is called a Communication,
and every candidate for its degrees must be acceptable
to all its members, an inviolable law under which no
complaint over the admission of new members can ever
arise in a Masonic lodge.  The grand lodge of England
in 1717, when the ballot box was unknown, required
members to decide on the admission of the candidate "in
their own prudent way, either virtually or in form, but
With Unanimity." With this requirement goes another law
unique among secret organizations, which is that no
Mason shall ever solicit any person to become a member
of the Order. This makes every application absolutely
voluntary, and its enforcement no doubt has caused many
worthy men to wonder why they have never been invited
to become Masons.


The Origin and Structure of the York and Scottish
Rites, and Their Relations.

As now constituted, Freemasonry consists of two
separate series of degrees, which are conferred in
regular order upon candidates, and are known
respectively as the York Rite and the Scottish Rite,
both having for their foundation the first three
degrees

The York Rite derives its name from the city of York,
in the north of England, where Macoy, a Masonic author
of repute, says the annual and general assemblies of
the craft were re-established in 926, A.D. It includes,
in addition to the symbolic degrees, Capitular,
Cryptic, and Chivalric grades, conferred in bodies
severally designated as the Chapter, Council, and
Commandery, whose meetings are called respectively
convocations, assemblies, and conclaves.  The Chapter
has four degrees, mark master, past master, most
excellent master, and the Royal Arch, with an honorary
order of high priesthood appended, which is conferred
at meetings of grand chapters on high priests of
subordinate chapters.  The chief officers of a chapter
are the high priest, king, scribe, and capain of the
host, who represent Joshua, Zerubbabel, Haggai, and the
general of the troops.  The council has two degrees,
royal master and select master, its leading officials
being thrice illustrious master, his deputy, and the
principal conductor of the work, who represent Solomon,
king of Israel, Hiram, king of Tyre, and Hiram Abif. 
The Commandery has three orders, Knight of the Red
Cross, Knight Templar, and Knight of Malta.  Its most
important officers are the eminent commander,
generalissimo, captain general and excellent prelate. 

Symbolic Masonry was introduced into America by the
British, and during the colonial period of the country
was under English authority.  After the Declaration of
Independence in 1776 the question of allegiance became
a serious one to American Masons, but they concluded
that Masonic must be in accord with civil government,
and in 1777 chose their own Grand Master to take the
place of the British official. In 1776 a charter was
granted to a military lodge in "the Connecticut line,"
called American Union Lodge, erected in Roxbury or
wherever its body might remove on the continent of
America.  At the close of the Revolutionary War the
master and a number of the members of this lodge, of
which George Washington was a member, settled at
Marietta, Ohio.  They had the charter, and reorganized
the lodge there in 1790, two years after the settlement
of that historic city. In 1816, the original charter
having been lost by fire, the lodge was granted a new
one by the grand lodge of Ohio, under the name of
American Union Lodge No. 1, their new charter showing
it to be a revival of the old lodge, undoubtedly the
first one established under American authority.

The first authentic historical record of the
communication of the royal arch degree is dated 1746,
when presiding masters and past masters received it in
a lodge in England.  Twenty-two years later it came
under the authority of a higher body than the lodge,
and appeared in Philadelphia in 1758 and in Boston
forty years later. A grand royal arch chapter of the
Northern States of America was formed of chapters
existing in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut &
New York early in 1798, which at a subsequent
convocation held the same year changed its name to the
general grand chapter, with a number of deputy grand
chapters under its authority.
The council degrees came to America from Berlin, by
authority of Frederick II, king of Prussia, in 1783,
and were deposited in the archives of the grand council
of princes of Jerusalem at Charleston, South Carolina. 
They were known at that time as detached degrees, and
were conferred free of charge.  Gradually the authority
and jurisdiction over the degrees came into the hands
of the companions upon whom it had been conferred,
until in 1827 a committee was appointed by the grand
chapter to investigate the propritey of having the
several grand royal arch chapters assume jurisdiction
over them.  This committee found them to have
originally belonged to the Scottish rite as side
degrees, which were conferred by agents of that rite
who granted charters for the establishment of councils
in different states. These councils finally formed
grand councils which threw off allegiance to the
Scottish rite, which was proper, inasmuch as their
original charters were never granted directly by the
Supreme council of that rite but only by
representatives.  They are now placed exactly where
they  belong, as necessary for the illustration of the
royal arch degree, and no conflict of authority over
them is likely ever to arise

For many years commanderies of knights templar were
regarded as having descended directly from the
Christian crusaders of the twelfth and fourteenth
centuries.  Addison, a leading American Masonic
authority, dates the origin of the order back to 1113
A. D., when nine knights who had nobly acquitted
themselves at the battle of Jerusalem formed a holy
brotherhood in arms, the purpose of which was to
protect and guide pilgrims on their way to the Holy
City.  They were so poor they rode two on one horse,
and had no fixed place of habitation until they were
given quarters in the enclosure of the temple by
Baldwin II, king of Jerusalem, five years, after taking
the vows of their order. By the end of the twelfth
century they numbered thirty thousand, and had
commanderies in Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, Cyprus,
Portugal, Castile and Leon, Arragon, France, England,
Ireland, Germany, Sicily and Italy.  A hundred years
later they had accumulated much treasure, which excited
the cupidity of both kings and churchmen.  The grand
master of the Knights Templar, James de Molay, went to
Paris at the request of the Pope in 1307, with sixty
knights, bearing 150,000 florins of gold and all the
silver twelve horses could carry, his purpose being to
concert plans for the recovery of the Holy Land.  All
were arrested by King Philip, who was determined to
have their wealth.  Accused of spitting and trampling
on the cross, worshipping idols and the devil in the
form of a cat, of eating the ashes of dead comrades,
and of terrible debaucheries, they were put to the
torture.  Fifty-nine knights templar were burned at the
stake in one day by Dominican friars. DeMolay was
imprisoned for years, tortured repeatedly, and burned
to death by slow fire March 18, 1313, on a small island
in the Seine.  But modern research has thrown much
doubt on Addison's opinion, the six hundred years
between the templarism of DeMolay and that first
recorded in America having yielded no documentary or
other unquestionable evidence of lineal connection
between the two.  The first published written record of
the investiture of the Masonic order of Knight Templar
is dated August 28, 1769, the creation taking place in
a Boston Lodge.  Where the ritual used on that occasion
came from, or whence sprang the authority for it, is
one of the many mysteries of Masonry for which no
positive solution has been discovered.  It is certain
that the honors of the order were not bestowed upon
candidates in England until ten years after the
ceremony in the Boston lodge, although possibly in
existence a few years before in Ireland.  Templar
Masonry immediately became popular because of its
distinctively Christian character, its purpose being to
perpetuate the teachings of Christ.  It retains the
forms and phraseology of a military organization, but
the sacred nature of its rites is far different from
that of a merely tactical system of instruction.  Early
in the nineteenth century grand encampments of
commanderies came into existence in several states of
the Union, and in 1816 the general grand encampment of
knights templar of the United States, of America was
formed in the city of New York, and since then the
number of knights templar has multiplied until they are
now to be found in almost every considerable city on
the globe. Each of the individual organizations of
Masons, called the lodge, chapter, council and
commandery, are under the authority of grand or general
grand bodies which leislate for and govern them by
codes and constitutions.  None of these bodies
conflicts with another, but all work harmoniously
together under an admirable and clearly defined system
of interdependent jurisprudence. 

The Scotish rite, or high grade Masonry, is so called
because the founder of its ceremonies claimed to have
discovered its grades in Scotland.  It was in fact
originated about the middle of the eighteenth century,
in France, which for about fifty years after the
introduction of symbolic Masonry into its territory was
a prolific field for the production of all sorts of
alleged Masonic degrees.  In 1754 the Chevalier de
Bonneville established in France the systematized Rite
of Perfection, or Heredom, consisting of twenty-five
degrees.  The French lodges, disgusted by the hundreds
of bastard degrees that were floating about and
distracting the attention of their members from the
legitimate work, were incensed over high grade Masonry,
and in August, 1766, their grand lodge issued an order
forbidding the lodges within its jurisdiction to have
anything whatever to do with any high grades.  This
decree was repealed, however, in October of the same
year, after much quarreling and numerous brawls in the
grand lodge, where there was a hot conflict of opinion
as to the legitimacy and worth of the high grades, with
which many of the disputants were unacquainted. In 1752
Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, had accepted the
patronage of the Scottish rite, and became its chief,
immensely strengthening its influence throughout
Europe.  But for this fact, it is probable that the
grand lodge of France would have remained hostile to
the high grades.  In 1801 the supreme council of the 33
degree opened at Charleston, South Carolina, and a year
after issued a circular containing a list of the
thirty-three degrees of the rite.  Eight had been added
to those of the rite of perfection, the 33 degree and
last having undoubtedly been created by the Supreme
Council.  It is not definitely known whether the
remaining seven were selections from degrees already in
existence, or the creation of the council itself. The
rites of this council slowly found acceptance over the
Masonic world, not being performed in England until
1845, but they are now in great favor everywhere.  Its
degrees in their established order, omitting the basic
Symbolic Three, the possession of which is necessary
for the eligibility of every applicant for the Scottish
rite, are as follows:

Ineffable grades of grand lodges of perfection -4.
Secret master; 5. Perfect master; 6. intimate
secretary; 7. Provost and judge; 8. Intendant of the
building; 9. Master elect of nine; 10. Master elect of
fifteen; 11. Sublime knight elected; 12. Grand master
architect; 13. Knight of the ninth arch; 14. Grand
elect perfect and sublime Mason,

Ancient historical and traditional grades of grand
councils of princes of Jerlusalem - 15. Knight of the
East or sword; 16. Prince of Jerusalem. The
Philosophical and doctrinal grades of grand chapters of
Rose-Croix, de H-R-D-M -17.  Knight of the East and
West; 18.  Sovereign prince of Rose-Croix, de H-R-D-M,
and knight of the eagle and pelican. Modern historical,
chivalric and philosophical grades of grand
consistories of sublime princes of the royal secret -
19.  Grand pontiff; 20. Grand master, ad vitam; 21.
Noachite, or Prussian knight; 22. Knight of the royal
axe, or prince of Libanus; 23. Chief of the tabernacle;
24.  Prince of the Tabernacle; 25. Knight of the brazen
serpent; 26. Prince of mercy, or Scotch trinitarian;
27. Sovereign commander of the temple; 28. Knight of
the Sun, or prince adept; 29. Knight of St. Andrew, or
patriarch of the crusades; 30. Knight of Kadosh, or
knight of the white and black eagle; 31. Grand
inspector inquisitor commander; 32. Sublime prince of
of the royal secret. The 33 degree and Last Degree of
all is that of the Official grade of the supreme
council - 33. Sovereign grand inspector general

Among the characters represented in the foregoing
grades are Moses, Aaron, Joshua, Eleazer, Solomon,
Adoniram, Abda, Hiram, king of Tyre, Cyrus Artaxerxes,
Zerubbabel, Ananias, Stolkyn, Zerbal, Tito Zadoc and
Frederick the Great of Prussia.  The Scottish rite
requires so many costly accessories, such as costumes,
furniture, stage scenery, and properties, especially
constructed buildings, underground excavations, and
musical facilities, that it is practiced only in the
larger cities where Masonic temples of large size
exist.  One of the finest Scottish rite cathedrals in
the world is at Cincinnati, Ohio, where the sublime
work of high grade Masonry is exemplified in the most
profoundly impressive manner by masters of the arts
taught the craft. Freemasonry is now firmly established
over practically the entire globe.  Europe, Asia,
Africa, North and South America, Australia, and all the
important islands of the sea are dotted with lodges. 
Almost every nation, race and people feel its
influence.  As universal as the principles it
inculcates, it has found Nourishing Soil wherever
belief in the Supreme Being and freedom of conscience
dwell together.  It has given light to civilized people
of every race, color and sect that supports liberal
principles, and in different jurisdictions the world
over numbers its members by scores, hundreds, or
thousands, as the judgment and prudence of the craft
dictate. Race prejudice exists to some extent among
Freemasons, although properly it can have no place in
so cosmopolitan an institution, and while it has not
barred any race from Freemasonry, it has denied
recognition in some localities to the Masonic bodies of
the Negro race, and to individual Masons of the Hebraic
division of the Semitic race.  The first Negroes to be
made Freemasons were Prince Hall and fourteen other
free colored citizens of Boston.  In 1775 the traveling
lodge of a British  regiment conferred the symbolic
degrees upon them. They applied to England for a
charter, which they received in 1787, and under its
unquestionable authority the first Negro Masonic lodge
was instituted, with Prince Hall as its master.  In a
perfectly legitimate way its officcrs established
another Negro lodge in Philadelphia in 1797, and yet
another at Providence soon after. In 1808 these three
lodges formed a grand lodge, which in 1827 declared
itself independent of the grand lodge of England, and
there are now over thirty grand lodges of colored
Freemasons in the United States, sprung from its
original African lodge, which have been recognized as
regular in half a dozen countries.  In 1876 the grand
lodge of Ohio refused to consider a resolution to
recognize as regular the colored grand lodge of the
same State, by a vote of 399 to 332 - a decision
remarkable for the narrow margin by which it was made

The first Negro chapter of royal arch Masons was formed
in Philadelphia in 1819 or 1820, and not long after, a
Negro commandery of knights templar was in existence. 
The American Negro first began to practice the Scottish
Rite about 1825, but it was not until after the War of
the Rebellion that much headway was made.  There are
now four supreme councils of Negroes in the United
States, possessing very slender claims to legitimate
authority.  In 1895 there were nineteen colored grand
encampments of knights templar, with about 3,000
knights enrolled, whose claims to lawful origin cannot
be compared with those which sustain them in the
symbolic degrees. In Liberia, on the west coast of
Africa, there has lived since 1847 a gallant little
republic established by Negroes, which has a college
whose professors are Negroes, and whose beneficent free
institutions have at least partly civilized thousands
upon thousands of Africans who dwell on its borders. 
Liberia has a legitimate grand lodge composed of black
men, with subordinate lodges in which the pure rite of
the English craft is practiced by the colored race, and
the principles of the order properly and judiciously
disseminated.  In Germany and in some localities in
other countries Jews are neither admitted to Masonic
lodges nor recognized as Masons even after being made
such by legitimate authority elsewhere. But these
delinquencies in localities where race prejudice is
strong are exceptions to the rule of toleration which
the true spirit of Freemasonry has spread over nearly
the entire world, and cannot justly be held against it.

VII

The Fundamental Principles & Moral & Religious
Teachings of Freemasonry.

The bitter antagonism to Freemasonry at various dates
in its history, which have been related at some length,
make fitting particular reference to the Character of
the institution.  Its fundamental principles are belief
in God, the immortality of the soul, and the Bible.

The Rules and Charges under which the society has
operated since history first disclosed its purposes to
the world are the true index of its inherent qualities. 
The English manuscript of 1388, which says "Thys craft
com ynto Englond yn tyme of good Kynge Abelstonus day."
is not deficient in religious and moral admonitions. 
The craftsman was instructed to "most love wel God and
holy churchs," to respect the chastity of his Master's
Wife and "his fellows Concubyne," and he schal swere
never to be no thef " and "stond wel yn Goddes lawe."
The Torgau (German) ordinance of 1462 required each
fellow of the craft to give one penny a week for God's
service. Every master was to be upright in all things,
to incite neither warden, nor fellow, nor apprentice to
evil, and to keep his lodge free from strife and pure
as the seat of justice. No master could allow a Harlot
to enter his lodge, or borrow and remain unwilling to
repay, nor could less than three masters together judge
of that which touched the honor of good repute of one
of the craft.  The fellows who ate or drank to excess,
pilfered, murdered, or disported themselves in the land
with Ungodly Women, were to be cast out from the craft
forever.  When fellows went to lodge their greeting
was: "God greet ye, God guide ye, God reward ye, ye
honorable overmaster, warden and trusty fellows"

The German Brother-Book of 1563 prescribed in
seventy-three articles the ordinances adopted by the
chief lodge at Strassburg, to obey which the masters
and fellows took oath.  The rehearsal of a few of them
will sufficiently explain the nature of all.  No
craftsman or master could live in adultery, on pain of
losing communion with all Masons, nor could any master
or craftsman employ any fellow who consorted with a
woman in adultery, or who went not according to
Christian discipline, or who was so foolish as to game
away his clothes. All the fellows paid faithfully a
penny a week for the sick.  Every apprentice declared
free became a brother, and promised the craft never to
disclose or communicate the master's greeting and grip
to anyone, except to him to whom he might justly do so;
and also to write nothing of it. The statutes of the
Masons re-enacted in Montpellier, France, in 1586,
provided that Masons should not undertake any work to
the prejudice of the public or against ordinances of
the King; that when any master or wife died, the other
masters should accompany the body to the burial; that
should a fellow commit a theft, or any villany, deceit
or forfeiture in the house of a master, against him,
his wife, family, chambermaid, or other, he must make
condign reparation. Following these and other
regulations in force throughout the Masonic world in
the centuries of operative Masonry came the Ancient
Charges to Master Masons when the speculative science
of the society was developed. These are now
incorporated in the constitutions of the order
throughout the world, and faithfully betoken its
present relations to God and man, to the state and
religionig.

These venerated charges are arranged under the
following six general heads:

1. Of God and Religion.
2. Of the Civil Magistrate supreme and subordinate.
3. Of Lodges.
4. Of Masters, Wardens, Fellows and Apprentices
5. Of the Management of the Craft in working.
6. Of Behavior.

Under the first specification" a Mason is oblig'd by
his Tenure to obey the moral law; and if he rightly
understands the art, he will never be a stupid Atheist,
nor an irreligious Libertine.  But though in Ancient
Times Masons were charg'd in every country to be of the
Religion of that Country or Nation, whatever it was,
yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them
to that Religion in which all Men agree, leaving their
particular Opinions to themselves; that is, to be good
Men and true, or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever
Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguish'd;
whereby Masonry becomes the Center of Union, and the
Means of conciliating true Friendship among persons
that must have remain'd at a perpetual Distance." A
Mason is defined under the second head as "a Peaceable
Subject to the Civil Powers, wherever he resides or
works, and is never to be concern'd in Plots and
Conspiracies against the Peace and Welfare of the
Nation, or to behave himself undutifully to inferior
Magistrates; for as Masonry hath always been injured by
War, Bloodshed and Confusion, so ancient Kings and
Princes have been much dispos'd to encourage the
Craftsmen, because of their Peaceableness and Loyalty, whereby they practically answer'd the Cavils of their
Adversaries, and promoted the Honour of the Fraternity,
who ever flourish'd in Times of Peace.  So that if a
Brother should be a Rebel against the State, he is not
to be countenanc'd in his Rebellion, however he may be
pitied as an unhappy Man; and if convicted of no other
Crime, though the loyal Brotherhood must and ought to
disown his Rebellion, and give no Umbrage or Ground of
Political Jealousy to the Government for the time
being, they cannot expel him from the Lodge, and his
Relation to it remains indefeasible" 
A lodge is described as "a Place where members assemble
and work." It is "either practical or general, and will
be best understood by attending it. In ancient Times,
no Master or Fellow could be absent from it without
incurring a severe Censure, until it appear'd that pure
Necessity hinder'd him.  The Persons admitted Members
of a Lodge must be good and true Men, free-born and of
mature and discreet Age, no Bondmen, no Women, no
immoral or scandalous Men, but of good Report." The
fact that Woman is Barred from the practice of Masonry
has been the text for many criticisms and explanations. 
Thomas de Quincey, in his curious essay on Rosicrucians
and Freemasonry, says: "For what reason women were
excluded, I suppose it can hardly be necessary to say. 
The absurd spirit of curiosity, talkativeness, and
levity, which so distinguish that unhappy sex, were
obviously incompatible with the grave purposes of the
Rosicrucians and Masons.  Not to mention that the
familiar intercourse, which co-membership in these
societies brings along with it, would probably have led
to some disorders in a promiscuous assemblage of both
sexes, such as might have tainted the good fame or even
threatened the existence of the order." This is a
severe judgment, and touched with injustice.  There is
a better reason why she can not participate in the
rites, which may be found in the fugitive lines which
follow:

" 'T is not because she lightly is esteemed,
Or that unworthy she is thought to be,
Nor that her mind incompetent is deemed
To appreciate the glorious mystery,
Or that she's wanting in fidelity,
That woman is excluded from the right
Of being numbered with the Sons of Light;
But 'tis because that man alone can do
The work which on our trestle-board is laid."

Yet there is good authority for the belief that three
women have known the E. A. degree.  One was Mrs.
Beaton, of Norfolk, Eng., who acquired the secrets of
the degree by secreting herself in the wainscoting of a
lodge room.  Though she lived to be 85, she never
revealed what she learned.  Madame de Xaintrailles was
initiated as Entered Apprentice by the Freres-Artistes
lodge in Paris about 1795.  Cuvelier de Trie was the
Master, and the Madame frequently thereafter
participated in first degree work. The Hon Mrs.
Aldworth also received the Entered Apprentce degree. 
Under the fourth specification "all preferment among
Masons is grounded on real Worth and personal Merit
only; that so the Lords may be well served, the
Brethren not put to shame, nor the Royal Craft
despis'd; therefore no Master or Warden is chosen by
Seniority, but for his Merit." "No Master should take
an Apprentice unless he be a perfect Youth, having no
Maim or Defect in his body, and is descended of honest
Parents."  No brother can be a grand master" unless he
has been a Fellow-Craft before his election, who is
also to be nobly-born, or a Gentleman of the best
Fashion, or some eminent Scholar, or some curious
Architect, or other Artist, and who is of singular
great Merit in the Opinion of the Lodges." The officers
of the lodges "are to be obey'd in their respective
Stations by all the Brethren, with all Humility,
Reverence, Love and Liberty." The charges concerning
the management of the craft require that "none shall
discover Envy at the Prosperity of a Brother, nor
supplant him, or put him out of his Work, if he be
capable to finish the same," and that "all Masons
employ'd shall meekly receive their wages without
Murmuring or Mutiny, and not desert the Master till the
Work is finish'd

On the behavior of brethren the charges are explicit
and shed much light on the spirit of the instutition.
In the lodge Masons are "not to talk of anything
impertinent or unseemly," nor to "behave ludicrously or
jestingly while the Lodge is engaged in what is serious
or solemn; nor use any unbecoming Language upon any
Pretense whatsoever."  After the lodge is closed, and
the brethren are not gone from the hall, they may enjoy
themselves with "innocent Mirth," "avoiding all
Excess," "or doing or saying anything offensive, or
that may forbid an easy and free Conversation. 
Therefore no private Piques or Quarrels must be brought
within the Door of the Lodge, far less than Quarrels
about Religion, or Nations, or State Policy, we being
only as Masons, of the Catholick Religion
above-mention'd; we are also of all Nations, Tongues,
Kindreds and Languages, and are resolved against all
Politicks, as what never yet conduc'd to the Welfare of
the Lodge, nor ever will."  At home and in their
neighborhood Masons are "to act as becomes a moral and
wise Man," not continue together "too late, or too long
from home, after Lodge Hours are past," to avoid
"Gluttony or Drunkenness, Wrangling 'and Quarreling,
all Slander and Backbiting," and to defend the
character of any honest brother "as far as is
consistent with Honour and Safety, and no farther."
Disorderly conduct in the Lodge, soliciting any person
to make application to become a Mason, irregularly
communicating the secrets of the order, or the
proceedings of a lodge to persons other than Masons, or
any conduct that is unbecoming a good man and true, are
Masonic offenses, and subject the offender to one of
three punishments, reprimand, suspension, or expulsion


Before any candidate for Freemasonry is admitted to a
lodge he declares his belief in the ever-living God as
revealed in the Holy Bible, acknowledges it to be his
duty to pay Him the reverence due from the creature to
the Creator, and promises cheerfully to conform to the
ancient usages and established customs of the
Fraternity

Merely to summarize the monitorial lessons conveyed in
the higher degrees and grades of York Masonry and the
Scottish rite would require more space than can be
given here.  Enough has been paid, it is believed,
fairly to acquaint the reader with the spirit,
purposes, and character of Freemasonry, to which
Cunningham has given this tribute:

"Hail to the craft! at whose serene command 
The gentle arts in glad obedience stand.

To works of art her merit not confined,

She regulates the morals, squares the mind;
Corrects with care the sallies of the soul,
And points the tide of passions where to roll."

Of the value of the possession of one branch of Masonic
teachings Benjamin Franklin said: "They serve as
testimonials of character and qualifications which are
only conferred after a due course of instruction and
examination.  These are of no small value; they speak a
universal language and act as a passport to the
attention and support of the initiated in all parts of
the world.  They can not be lost as long as the memory
retains its power.  Let the possessor of them be
expatriated, shipwrecked and imprisoned, let him be
stripped of everything he has in the world, still these
credentials remain and are available for use as
circumstances require.  The great effects which they
have produced are established by the most incontestible
facts of history.  They have stayed the uplifted hand
of the destroyer; they have softened the asperities of
the tyrant; they have subdued the rancor of the
malevolent and broken down the barriers of political
animosity and sectarian alienation.  On the field of
battle, in the solitude of the uncultivated forest or
in the busy haunts of the crowded city, they have made
men of the most hostile feelings and most distant
religions, and of the most diversified conditions rush
to the aid of one another and feel social joy and
satisfaction that they have been able to afford relief
to a brother Mason." With the beauties and sublimities,
the dignity and dramatic power, of the Esoteric Work of
Freemasonry, none can be made acquainted but those who
witness and feel them as Accepted Candidates, There
are, however, published ceremonials of the fraternity
from which quotations may be made

The dead Freemason is always borne to the tomb by his
brethren, unless he has expressed a desire to the
contrary, and there the world is given a lesson in the
fraternity's practices, faith and belief.  At the
obsequies of a Master Mason this dirge, written by
David Vinton, an American, in 1816, is sung to the
mournful tune "Pleyel:"

"Solemn strikes the funeral chime,
Notes of our departing time
As we journey here below
Through a pilgrimage of woe.

Mortals, now indulge a tear,
For mortality is here!
See how wide her trophies wave
O'er the slumbers of the grave.

Here another guest we bring!
Seraphs of celestial wing,
To our fun'ral altar come,
Waft a friend and brother home.

Lord of all, below, above,
Fill our souls with truth and love;
As dissolves our earthly tie,
Take us to Thy lodge on high."

This prayer follows: "Almighty and most merciful God,
before whom all must appear to render an account for
the deeds done in the body, we do most carnestly
beseech Thee, as we now surround the grave of a
departed brother, to impress upon our minds the
solemnities and lessons of the day.  May we ever
remember that in the midst of life we are in death; and
may we so live and act our several parts as we may wish
that we had done, when the hour of our departure is at
hand. "Gracious Father, vouchsafe unto us,we pray Thee,
Thy divine assistance, to redeem our misspent time; and
in the discharge of the duties Thou hast assigned us in
the erection of our moral and spiritual edifice, may we
have Wisdom from on high to direct us, Strength
commensurate with our task to support us, and the
beauty of Holiness to render all our deeds acceptable
to Thy sight.  And at last when our work on earth is
done, may we obtain a blessed and everlasting rest in
that spiritual house, not made with hands, eternal in
the heavens.  Amen"

At the interment of a Knight Templar the Eminent
Commander, within a triangle of Sir Knights surrounding
the grave and the mourners, says:

"Sir Knights: In the solemn rites of our Order we have
often been reminded of the great truth, that we are
born to die. Mortality has been brought to view, that
we might more earnestly seek an immortality beyond this
fleeting life, where death can come no more forever. 
The sad and mournful funeral knell has betokened that
another spirit has winged its flight to a new state of
existence.  An alarm has come to the door of our
Asylum, and the messenger was death, and none presumed
to say to the awful presence, 'Who dares approach?' A
pilgrim warrior has been summoned, and 'there is no
discharge in that war.' A burning taper of life in our
Commandery has been extinguished, and none save the
High and Holy One can relight it. All that remains of
our beloved Companion Sir Knight lies mute before us,
and the light of the eye, and the breathing of the lips
in their language of fraternal greeting, have ceased
for us forever on this side of the grave.  His sword,
vowed only to be drawn in the cause of truth, justice
and rational liberty, reposes still in its scabbard,
and our arms can no more shield him from wrong or
oppression.

The Prelate says:

"Sir Knights, there is one sacred spot upon the earth,
where the foot-falls of our march are unheeded; our
trumpets quicken no pulse and incite no fear; the
rustling of our banners and the gleam of our swords
awaken no emotion - it is the silent city of the dead,
where we now stand.  Awe rests upon every heart and the
stern warrior's eyes are bedewed with  feelings which
never shame his manhood. It needs no siege nor assult,
nor beleaguering host to enter its walls; we fear no
sortie, and listen for no battle-shout.  No Warder's
challenge greets the ear, nor do we wait awhile with
patience for permission to enter.

"Hither must we all come at last; and the stoust heart
and the manifest form that surrounds me will then be
led a captive without title or rank, in the chains of
mortality and the habiliments of slavery, to the King
of Terrors. But if he has been faithful to the Captain
of his salvation, a true soldier of the cross; if he
has offered suitable gifts at the shrine of his
departed Lord, and bears the signet of the Lion of the
tribe of Judah, then may he claim to be of that
princely house, and be admitted to audience with the
Sovereign Master of Heaven and Earth.  Then will he be
stripped of the chains of earthly captivity, and
clothed in a white garment, glistening as the sun, and
be seated with princes and rulers, and partake of a
libation, not of death and sorrow, but of that wine
which is drank forever new in the Father's Kingdom
above. 

"We can not come here without subdued hearts and
softened affections.  Often as the challenge comes
which takes from our side some loved associate, some
cherished companions in arms, and often as the trumpet
sounds its wailing notes to summon us to the death-bed,
and to the brink of the sepulchre, we cannot
contemplate 'the last of earth' unmoved.  Each
successive death note snaps the fibre which binds us to
this lower existence, and makes us pause and reflect
upon that dark and gloomy chamber where we must all
terminate our pilgrimage.  Well will it be for our
peace then, if we can wash our hands, not only in token
of sincerity, but of every guilty stain, and give
honest and satisfactory answers to the questions
required. 

"The sad and soemn scene nom, before us stirs up these
recollections with a force and vivid power which we
have hitherto unfelt.  He who now slumbers in that
last, long unbroken sleep of death, was our brother. 
With him we have walked the pilgrimage of life, and
kept watch and ward together in its vicissitudes and
trials.  He is now removed beyond the effect of our
praise and censure.  That we loved him, our presence
here evinces, and we remember him in scenes to which
the world was not witness, and where the better
feelings of humanity were exhibited without disguise. 
That he had faults and foibles, is but to repeat what
his mortality demonstrates - that he had a human
nature, not divine. Over those errors, whatever they
may have been, we cast, while living, the mantle of
charity; it should, with much more reason, enshroud him
in death.  We who have been taught to extend the point
of charity even to a foe, when fallen, cannot be severe
or merciless toward a loved brother.

"The memory of his virtues lingers in our remembrance
and reflects its shining lustre beyond the portals of
the tomb.  The earthen vase which has contained
precious odors will lose none of its fragrance, though
the clay be broken and shattered.  So be it with our
brother's memory"

Taking a Cross in his hand, the Prelate continues:

"This Symbol of faith - the Chrisitian's hope and the
Christian's trust - we again place upon the breast of
our brother, there to remain till the last trumpet
shall sound, and earth and sea yield up their dead. 
Though it may, in the past history of our race, have
been perverted at times into an ensign of oppression,
and crime, and wrong; though it may have been made the
emblem of fraud, and superstition, and moral darkness,
yet its significance still remains as the badge of a
Christian warrior.  It calls to mind Gethsemane and its
sorrowful garden; the judgment hall of Pilate, and the
pitiless crown of thorns; Golgotha and Calvary, and
their untold agonies, that fallen man might live and
inherit everlasting life.  If an inspired Apostle was
not ashamed of the Cross, neither should we be; if he
gloried in the significance of the truths it shadowed
forth, so ought we to rejoice in it as the speaking
witness of our reliance beyond the grave.  May this
hope of the living have been the anchor to the soul of
our departed brother - the token to admit him to that
peaceful haven 'where the wicked cease from troubling,
and the weary are at rest.' "

In these brief extracts the reader may find the vital
spark which keeps Freemasonry lowing with human
interest the world over.

VIII

The Landmarks of Masonry Defined, & Its Universality as
a Secret Fraternity.

Certain characteristics of Freemasonry called
'Landmarks' have long been discussed by Masonic
authorities, among whom more or less difference of
opinion has arisen.  These Landmarks are certain
unchangeable laws 

Dr. Mackey says they are "those peculiar marks of
distinction by which we are separated from the profane
world, and by which we are enabled to designate our
inheritance as the 'Sons of Light.' The universal
language and the universal laws of Masonry are
Landmarks, but not so are the local ceremonies, laws,
and usages, which vary in diferent countries.  To
attempt to alter or remove these sacred Landmarks, by
which we examine and prove a Brother's claims to share
in our privileges, is one of the most heinous offenses
that a Mason can commit.  There are, however, certain
forms and regulations which, although not constituting
Landmarks, are nevertheless so protected by the
venerable claim of antiquity that they should be
guarded by every good Mason with religious care from
alteration.  It is not in the power of any body of men
to make innovation in Masonry."

The real Landmarks of the order are thus specified by
Dr. Mackey:

1. The modes of recognition.
2. The division of Symbolic Masonry into degrees.
3. The legend of the Third Degree.
4. The governnaent of the Fraternity by a presiding
officer called a Grand Master, who is elected from the
body of the Craft.  
5. The prerogative of the Grand Master to preside over
every assembly of the Craft wheresoever and whensoever
held.
6. The prerogative of the Grand Master to grant
Dispensations to confer degrees at irregular times.
7. The prerogative of the Grand Master to grant
Dispensations for opening and holding Lodges.
8. The prerogative of the Grand Master to make Masons
at sight.
9. The necessity for Masons to congregate in Lodges.
10. The government of every Lodge by a Master and
Wardens.
11. The necessity that every Lodge when congregated
should be duly tyled. 
12. The right of every Mason to be represented in all
general meetings of the Craft, and to instruct his
representatives. 
13. The right of every Mason to appeal from the
decision of his Brethren in Lodge convened, to the
Grand Lodge or to a general assembly of Masons.
14. The right of every Mason to visit and sit in every
regular Lodge.
15. That no visitor, not known to some Brother present
as a Mason, can enter a Lodge without undergoing
examination. 
16. That no Lodge can interfere in the business or
labor of another Lodge.
17. That every Freemason is amenable to the laws and
regulations of the Masonic jurisdiction in which he
resides, and this although he may not be a member of
any lodge. 
18. That every candidate for initiation must be a man,
free born and of lawful age. 
19. That every Mason must believe in the existence of
God as the Great Architect of the Universe.
20. That every Mason must believe in a resurrection to
a future life. 
21. That a book of the law of God must constitute an
indispensable part of the furniture of every Lodge.
22. That all men in the sight of God, are equal, and
meet in the lodge on one common level.
23. That Freemasonry is a secret society, in possession
of secrets that cannot be divulged.
24. That Freemasonry consits of a speculative science
founded on speculative art.
25. That the Landmarks of Masonry can never be changed

The universality of the Landmarks, and of the
Institution itself, was ably and eloquently set forth
by Charles Whitlock Moore of Massachusetts in 1856, at
the centennial anniversary of St. Andrew's Lodge in
Boston. He said:

"I suppose it to be entirely true, in view of the great
accessions that have been made to its members within
the last two or three years, that there are many
persons present who entertain, at best, but a general
and indefinite idea of the antiquity, extent and
magnitude of our institution.  And it is equally true
that many even of our most intelligent and active young
Brethren, not having their attention drawn to the
subject, overlook its history and the extent of its
influence, and naturally come to regard it in much the
same light that they do the ordinary associations of
the day; and this as naturally leads to indifference. 
Masonry, like every other science, whether moal or
physical, to be rightly estimated, must be understood
in all its relations and conditions.  The intelligent
Mason values it in the exact ratio that he has
investigated its history and studied its philosophy.

"But my immediate purpose is not to discuss the
importance of the study of Masonry as a science, but to
show its universality as a fraternity.  This will
necessarily involve to some extent the history of its
rise and progress.

"In the beginning of the fifteenth century, Henry VI of
England asked of our brethren of that day - 'Where did
Masonry begin?' and being told that it began in the
East, his next inquiry was - 'Who did bring it
Westerly?' - and he received for answer, that it was
brought Westerly by 'the Phoenicians.' These answers
were predicated, not on archaeological investigations;
for the archaeology of Masonry had not been opened, but
on the traditions of the Order, as they had been
transmitted from generation to generation, and from a
period running so far back along the stream of time
that it had been lost in the mists and obscurity of the
mythological ages.  Recent investigations, guided by
more certain lights and more extensive and clearer
developments of historical truth, have shown that these
brethren were not misled by their traditions, and that
their answers indicated with remarkable precision, what
the most learned of our brethren in this country and in
Europe, at the present time believe to be the true
origin of their institution.

"Freemasonry was originally a fraternity of Practical
builders - architects and artificers.  This is conceded
by all who are to any extent acquainted with its
history or its traditions.  The Phoenicians, whose
capital cities were Tyre and Sidon, were the early
patrons of that semi-religious mystic fraternity or
society of builders, known in history as the 'Dionysian
Architects.' That this fraternity were employed by the
Tyrians and Sidonians in the erection of costly temples
to unknown Deities, in the building of rich and
gorgeous palaces, and in strengthening and beautifying
their cities, is universally admitted.  That they were
the 'cunning workmen' sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to
aid King Solomon in the erection of the Temple on Mount
Moriah, is scarcely less certain. Their presence in
that city at the time of the building of the Temple is
the evidence of history; and Hiram, the widow's son, to
whom Solomon intrusted the superintendence of the
workmen, as an inhabitant of Tyre, and as a skilled
architect and cunning and curious workman, was
doubtless one of their number.  Hence we are scarcely
claiming too much for our order, when we suppose that
the Dionysians were sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to
assist King Solomon in the construction of the house he
was about to dedicate to Jehovah, and that they
communicated to their Jewish fellow-laborers a
knowledge of the advanages of their fraternity, and
invited them to a participation in its mysteries and
privileges. The jews were neither architects nor
artificers.  By Solomon's own admission, they were not
even skilled enough in the art of building to cut and
prepare the timber in the forests of Lebanon; and hence
he was compelled to employ the Sidonians to do that
work for him. 'The Tyrians,' says a learned foreign
Brother, 'were celebrated artists; Solomon, therefore,
unable to find builders of superior skill, for the
execution of his plans, in his own dominions, engaged
Tyrians, who with the assistance of the zealous Jews,
who contented themselves in performing the inferior
labor, finished that stupendous edifice.' And we are
told on the authority of Josephus that 'the Temple at
Jerusalem was built on the same plan, in the same
style, and by the same architects, as the temples of
Hercules and Astarte at Tyre,' They were doubtless all
three built by one of the companies of 'Dionysian
Architects, 'who at that time were numerous throughout
Asia Minor, where they possessed the exclusive
privilege of erecting temples, theatres, and other
public buildings. Dionysius arrived in Greece from
Egypt about one thousand five hundred years before
Christ, and there instituted, or introduced, the
Dionysian mysteries.  The Ionic migration occurred
about three hundred years afterwards, or one thousand
two hundred years B.C. - the emigrants carrying with
them from Greece to Asia Minor the mysteries of
Dionysius, before they had been corrupted by the
Athenians.  'In a short time,' says Mr. Lawrie, 'the
Asiatic colonies surpassed the mother country in
prosperity and science.  Sculpture in marble, and the
Doric and Ionic Orders were the result of their
ingenuity.' 'We know' says a learned encyclopedist,
'that the Dionysiacs of Ionia' (which place has,
according to Herodotus, always been celebrated for the
genius of its inhabitants), 'were a great corporation
of architects and engineers, who undertook, and even
monopolised, the building of temples, stadiums, and
theatres, precisely as the fraternity of Masons are
known to have, in the Middle Ages, monopolized the
building of cathedrals and conventual churches. Indeed,
the Dionysiacs resembled the mystical fraternity, now
called Freemasons, in many important particulars.  They
allowed no strangers to interfere in their employment;
recognized each other by signs and tokens; they
professed certain mysterious doctrines, under the
tuition and tutelage of Bacchus; and they called all
other men profane because not admitted to these
mysteries.'

"The testimony of history is, that they supplied Ionia
and the surrounding country, as far as the Hellespont,
with theatrical apparatus, by contract.  They also
practiced their art in Syria, Persia, and India; and
about three hundred years before the birth of Christ, a
considerable number of them were incorporated by
command of the King of Pergamus, who assigned to them
Teos as a settlement. It was this fraternity, whether
called Greeks, Tyrians or Phoenicians, who built the
Temple at Jerusalem.  That stupendous work, under God,
was the result of their genius and scientific skill. 
And this being true, from them are we, a fraternity,
lineally descended, or our antiquity is a myth, and our
traditions a fable.  Hence the answer of our English
Brethren of the fifteenth century, to the inquiry of
Henry VI, that Masonry was brought Westerly by the
Phoenicians, indicated with great accuracy the probable
origin of the Institution.

"They might indeed have said to him that long anterior
to the advent of Christianity, the mountains of Judea
and the plains of Syria, the deserts of India and the
valley of the Nile, were cheered by its presence and
enlivened by its song; - that more than a thousand
years before the coming of the 'Son of Man,' a little
company of 'cunning workmen, 'from the neighboring city
of Tyre, were assembled on the pleasant Mount Moriah,
at the call of the wise King of Israel, and there
erected out of their great skill a mighty edifice,
whose splendid and unrivaled perfection, and whose
grandeur and sublimity have been the admiration and
theme of all succeeding ages. They might have said to
him that this was the craft work of a fraternity to
whose genius and discoveries, and to whose matchless
skill and ability, the wisest of men in all ages have
bowed with respect.  They might also have said to him
that, having finished that great work, and filled all
Judea with temples and palaces and walled cities,
having enriched and beautified Azor, Gozarra, and
Palmyra, with the results of their genius, these
'cunning workmen' in after-times, passing through the
Essenian associations, and finally issuing out of the
mystic halls of the 'Collegia Artificium' of Rome,
burst upon the 'dark ages of the world like a bright
star peering through a black cloud, and under the
patronage of the church, produced those splendid
monuments of genius which set at defiance the highest
attainment of modern art.  And, if in addition to all
this they had said to him that in the year A.D. 926,
one of his predecessors on the throne of England had
invited them from all parts of the continent, to meet
him in general assembly at his royal city of York, the
answer to his inquiry - 'Who did bring it Westerly?' -
would have been complete.

"Henceforward, for eight centuries, Masonry continued
an operative fraternity; producing both in England and
on the Continent, those grand and unapproachable
specimens of art which are the pride of Central Europe,
and the admiration of the traveler.  But it is no
longer an operative association.  We of this day, as
Masons, set up no pretensions to extraordinary skill in
the physical sciences.  Very few of us - accomplished
Masons as we may be - would willingly undertake to
erect another temple on Mount Moriah! Very certain we
are that our own honored M. W. Grand Master, - primus
inner pares, as all his Brethren acknowledge him to be,
would hesitate a long time before consenting to assume
the duties of architect for another Westminster Abbey,
or a new St. Paul's.  No. At the reorganization of the
Craft and the establishment of the present Grand Lodge
of England in 1717, we laid aside our operative
character, and with it all pretensions to extraordinary
skill in architectural science.  We then became a
purely moral and benevolent association, whose great
aim is the development and cultivation of the moral
sentiment, the social principle, and the benevolent
affections, a higher reverence for God, and a warmer
love for man.  New laws and regulations, adapted to the
changed condition of the Institution, were then made, -
an entire revolution in its governmental policy took
place, order and system obtained where neither had
previously existed, and England became the great
central point of Masonry for the whole world.

"From this source have Lodges, Grand and Subordinate,
at various times, been established, and still exist and
flourish - in France and Switzerland; in all the German
States save Austria (and there at different times, and
for short seasons); and up and down the classic shores
of the Rhine; in Prussia; in Holland, Belgium, Saxony,
Hanover, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, and even in fallen
Poland; in Italy and Spain (under the cover of
secrecy); in various parts of Asia; in Turkey; in
Syria, (as at Aleppo, where an English lodge was
established more than a century ago; in all the East
India settlements; in Bengal, Bombay, Madras, (in all
of which lodges are numerous); in China, where there is
a Provincial Grand Master and several lodges; in
various parts of Africa, as at the Cape of Good Hope
and at Sierra Leone; on the Gambia and on the Nile; in
all the larger islands of the Pacific and Indian
oceans, as at Ceylon, Sumatra, St. Helena, Mauritius,
Madagascar; the Sandwich group; in all the principal
settlements of Australia, as at Adelaide, Melbourne,
Parramatta, Sidney, New Zealand; in Greece where there
is a Grand Lodge; in Algeria, in Tunis, in the Empire
of Morocco - and wherever else in the Old World the
genius of civilization has obtained a standpoint, or
Christanity has erected the Banner of the Cross.

"In all the West India islands and in various parts of
South America, as in Peru, Venezuela, New Granada,
Guiana, Brazil, Chili, etc., Masonry is prospering as
never before.  In the latter Republic the Grand Lodge
of this Commonwealth has a flourishing subordinate, and
the Grand Master has just authorized the establishment
of another Lodge there.

"On our own continent our order was never more widely
diffused, or in a more healthy condition.  In Mexico,
even, respectable Lodges are  maintained, in despite of
the opposition of a bigoted Priesthood ; and in all
British America, from New Foundland, through Nova
Scotia and the Canadas to the icy regions of the North,
Masonic Lodges and Masonic Brethren may be found 'to
feed the hungry, clothe the naked and bind up the
wounds of the afflicted.'

"On the condition of the Institution in our own
country, I need not dwell.  Every State and Territory -
except the unorganized territory of Washington,
including even Kansas, has its Grand Lodge ; and nearly
every considerable town and village, its one or more
subordinate lodges.  If we add to these, the large
number of Chapters, Councils, Encampments, and other
Masonic associations which are spread all over the
length and breadth of the land, we have the evidence of
a prosperity unparalleled in the annals of any other
human Institution, in any age of the world.

"Masonry is indeed a universal Institution.  History
does not furnish its parallel.  It exists where
Christianity has not gone;  and its claims will be
respected even where the superior claims of religion
would fail. It is never obscured by the darkness of
night. The eye of day is always upon it. Its footprints
are to be traced in the most distant regions and in the
remotest ages of the earth.  Among all civilized people
and in all Christianized lands its existence is
recognized. It came to our shores at an auspicious
period; and it was here rocked in the Cradle of Liberty
by a Washington, a Franklin, a Hacock and a Warren. 
Unaffected by the tempests of war, the storms of
persecution, or the denunciations of fanaticism, it
still stands proudly erect in the sunshine and clear
light of heaven, with not a marble fractured, not a
pillar fallen. It still stands, like some patriarchal
monarch of the forest, with its vigorous roots riveted
to the soil, and its broad limbs spread in bold outline
against the sky; and in generations yet to come, as in
ages past, the sunlight of honor and renown will
delight to linger and play amid its venerable branches. 
And if ever, in the providence of God, lashed by the
storm and riven by lightning, it shall totter to its
fall, around its trunk will the ivy of filial
affection, that has so long clasped it, still cling,
and mantle with greenness and verdure its ruin and
decay"

In no sketch of Masonry, perhaps, should mention of the
Charities of the Order be ommitted. Masonic
benevolences are well systematized the world over. Some
of them are necessarily public, but the greater number
are never heard of outside the Lodge.  It is not the
policy of Masonry to dispense benevolences to any but
those who actually need them. The Order does not, for
instance, pay any member a sum of money merely because
he is sick.  The actual pinch of poverty must be
manifest before the coffers of the Society are opened. 
But when want stares a Freemason, his widow or his
orphans in the face, they are liberally assisted to
tide over their misfortunes.  Public Masonic Charities
take different forms in different countries.  In Sweden
twelve work schools in which poor children are taught
useful trades are maintained.  In Hungary last winter a
daily average of 9,722 poor people were each given a
loaf of bread, and at milk depots numberless children
were given each a roll and a pint of hot milk during
the rigors of frosty weather.

In America public Masonic Charities have largely been
in the form of Masonic Homes, great institutions in
which the aged, widows, and orphans are given a
pleasant home because of their connection with the
Fraternity.

A few words in conclusion: It has been the intent of
the writer to condense within about one hundred pages
such a sketch of Freemasonry as would interest men and
women, and yield to them correct ideas of the Order. If
a just account has been given of the Legend and
Tradition of Masonry, of its early manifestations, of
the Famous Attacks upon it, of its Teachings and of its
Extent, the author's purpose has been accomplished. 
There has been no attempt to make this little book
cyclopaedic, monitorial, jurisprudent, disquisitional,
argumentative or speculative.  The whole purpose has
been to make the Story accurate and brief.  For those
whose minds may not be content with the Primary methods
adopted herein, there is a literature which will carry
them to the highest pinnacles of Masonic learning in a
dozen different branches, and to which they may be
directed by any informed member of the Fraternity.