Twenty Questions


                                             ARTICLE 17A


TWENTY QUESTIONS
                


1.   A Demit (or Dimit) is:

     (a)  A funeral ode
     (b)  A dispensation
     (c)  A certificate of honourable withdrawal
     (d)  A paid up dues card

2.   A Cowan is:

     (a)  A cowardly Mason who sells his secrets
     (b)  An uninstructed Mason
     (c)  An eavesdropper
     (d)  A writer of Masonic exposes

3.   The oldest document in Freemasonry is:

     (a)  The Cooke Manuscript
     (b)  The Regius Manuscript
     (c)  The Constitution of the Mother Grand Lodge
     (d)  The Natural History of Staffordshire

4.   A Tenet is:

     (a)  A moral saying
     (b)  A religious doctrine
     (c)  A principle held true without proof
     (d)  A word of assent

5.   Masonically, Profane means:

     (a)  Blasphemous, irreligious
     (b)  In favour of the church
     (c)  Without the temple, uninitiated
     (d)  Professing without practising

6.   A Hecatomb is:

     (a)  A form of beehive
     (b)  A hundred head of cattle
     (c)  A measure of grain
     (d)  A sum of money



                                                       ...2
          

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 7.  The number Three appearing so often in Freemasonry:

     (a)  Represent the trinitarian doctrine
     (b)  Refers to the triangle symbol of Deity
     (c)  Refers to the three degrees
     (d)  Refers to the three Great Lights and the three Lesser
          Lights

 8.  "ABIF" means:

     (a)  The leader
     (b)  The architect
     (c)  My father
     (d)  Son of a member of the tribe of Naphtali

 9.  Who were "The Four Crowned Martyrs"?

     (a)  Twelfth Century Masons tortured by Phillip the Fair
     (b)  Members of the Roman Collegia, martyred for Masonry
     (c)  Victims of English rural intolerance
     (d)  Masons burned at the stake in Salem, Massachusetts

10.  Blue Lodges are so called because:

     (a)  Universality is symbolized by the blue clouded canopy,
          also a symbol of truth
     (b)  Early Masonic costumes were of blue
     (c)  Goose and Grid Iron Tavern, meeting place of early London
          Lodge, was painted blue
     (d)  Referring to the blue color in the Union Jack

11.  The Third Degree as we know it is:

     (a)  About five hundred years old
     (b)  About two hundred years old
     (c)  Ancient beyond knowledge
     (d)  An American addition

12.  The best known Encyclopedia of Freemasonry is:

     (a)  Mackey's
     (b)  Pike's
     (c)  Kenning's
     (d)  McKenzie's



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-  3  -
                            

13.  The Cornucopia is the Steward's symbol because:

     (a)  Stewards anciently carried refreshments into the Lodge
     (b)  It is a symbol of plenty
     (c)  It was carried by the King's Stewards in early
          coronations
     (d)  The Lord High Steward of England is so symbolized at the
          trial of a Peer

14.  Corner Stones are laid in the Northeast corner because:

     (a)  The strongest winds blow from the Northeast and the
          greatest strength must be there to resist
     (b)  It is the halfway point between darkness of North and
          light of East thus symbolizing a beginning
     (c)  The first cornerstone ever laid by Masons was laid in the
          Northeast corner
     (d)  Masonry first came to the United States in the Northeast
          part of the country.

15.  Hele (Masonically pronounced "Hail", but correctly "Heel")
     means:

     (a)  To hail, as in salute
     (b)  To cover or conceal
     (c)  To cure, to heal
     (d)  To bring to terms, as a dog is "brought to heel"

16.  It is true that Phythagoras:

     (a)  Was raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason
     (b)  Was initiated into several orders of priesthood
     (c)  Sacrificed a hecatomb
     (d)  Discovered the 47th Problem of Euclid

17.  A Pilaster is:

     (a)  A small column
     (b)  An unusually large column
     (c)  A right angled columnar projection
     (d)  The capstone of a pillar

18.  What is the Due Guard

     (a)  The next guard on shift
     (b)  A penal sign
     (c)  A sign of respect to visitors
     (d)  A salute to a Worshipful Master


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19.  Why is a Master addressed as Worshipful

     (a)  Because he has the same powers as a judge
     (b)  As a token of great respect
     (c)  Because he is also the religious leader of the Lodge
     (d)  Because our legendary first Master was a King before whom
          all knelt in respect

20.  When is an Apprentice - "Entered"?

     (a)  After he has served a term of apprenticeship
     (b)  When the Worshipful Master permits him to come into the
          Lodge for the first time
     (c)  When his name is entered into the books of the Lodge
          following the first degree
     (d)  When his petition has received a favourable ballot







THIS PAPER WAS PREPARED BY R.W. BILL MARKS, WOODLAWN LODGE NO. 131,
AND HAS BEEN USED AT NUMEROUS LODGES OF INSTRUCTION IN NOVA SCOTIA. 
IT WAS DONATED TO THE BOARD OF MASONIC EDUCATION ON JUNE 13, 1990.
                                        ARTICLE NO. 17B



ANSWER SHEET
               


 1.  (c)  A demit (dimit) is a certificate of honorable withdrawal.

          - Permission granted a member to terminate his membership
          and/or the paper representing that permission. In nearly
          all Grand jurisdictions obtaining a demit is a formality;
          a lodge is obliged to grant a demit to him who asks it
          provided he is in good standing and no charges have been
          or are about to be preferred against him.  The theory is
          that as he joined the lodge of his own free will and
          accord, he should have the right to leave it in the same
          way.  In some Grand jurisdictions a member may receive a
          demit only to join another lodge or to move from his
          Grand Jurisdiction to another.

          SOURCE:   One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                    The Masonic Service Association

 2.  (b)  A cowan is an uninstructed mason.

          - "Cowan" is an old Scottish word meaning an ignorant
          mason who put stones together without mortar or piled
          rough stones from the field into a wall without working
          them square and true.  He is a Mason without the Word;
          the Apprentice who tries to masquerade as a Master.  A
          cowan could be represented by a Fellowcraft or Entered
          Apprentice attempting to enter a Master Mason's lodge or
          the one-time member in good standing who has been
          suspended or expelled - these infrequently try to pass
          the tyler.
          
          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association

          
3.   (b)  The oldest document in Freemasonry is the Regius
          Manuscript.

          - Sometimes called the Halliwell Document it is loosely
          speaking the oldest "Manuscript Constitutions" of
          Freemasonry.  Dated approximately A.D. 1390 it is in old
          Chaucerian English, difficult to read without
          translation.  It is preserved in the British Museum.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association     
                                                            ...2
-  2  -
                            

4.   (c)  A tenet is a principle held without proof.

          _ Tenet - A doctrine, principle, belief or opinion held
          as true.  From the Latin (tenet) - he holds - the third
          person singular of (tenere) - to hold.

          SOURCE:  The World Book Dictionary.

5.   (c)  Masonically, profane means - without the Temple,
          uninitiated

          - Profane, masonically means "not a Mason" - it comes
          from the Latin - pro - meaning before and - fanum -
          meaning, a temple.  Masonically, profane is one "outside
          the Temple", uninitiated.  The word has no reference to
          "profanity" in the modern sense of taking the name of God
          in vain.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association

6.   (b)  A hecatomb is a hundred head of cattle.

          - An ancient Greek word.  Phythagoras is stated to have
          "sacrificed a hecatomb" upon discovering "the forty-
          seventh problem of Euclid".  The ritual here is not
          factual.  Phythagoras was known to be poor and could
          hardly have possessed a hundred head of cattle.  He was
          a vegetarian and reverenced animal life; he would not
          have killed one cow let alone a hundred, to celebrate his
          "discovery".

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association

7.   (b)  The number three appearing so often in Freemasonry refers
          to the triangle symbol of Deity.  

          - Three is the numerical symbol of the equilateral
          triangle, which is man's earliest symbol for God.  It was
          the "most sacred number" at the dawn of civilization. 
          Evidently, the ritual makers of an early age believed
          there should be a symbolism as well as object in the
          teachings of Masonry regarding the FATHERHOOD OF GOD to
          instruct that He is present at all times in every
          ceremony and meeting.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -  
                   The Masonic Service Association

                                                            ...3
-  3  -
                            

 8.  (c)  ABIF means, my father

          - The word ABIF is translated both "his father" and "my
          father" with the word father used in these senses as
          patriarch, a teacher, a source of wisdom, and not the
          actual father of a family.  Hiram Abif - "Hiram my
          father" is thus a title of honor and respect.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -  
                   The Masonic Service Association

 9.  (b)  The Four Crowned Martyrs were members of the Roman
          Collegia, martyred for Masonry

          - During the reign of Emperor Diocletan (A.D. 284-305)
          four Master Masons and one Entered Apprentice suffered
          atrocious deaths in the persecution of the Christians,
          and the "four crowned martyrs" (Quattour Coronati) became
          in later centuries the patron saints of Masons in
          Germany, France and England.  In London, England, the
          supreme lodge of research for the entire Craft bears this
          name.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -  
                   The Masonic Service Association

10.  (a)  Blue Lodges are so called because universality is
          symbolized by the blue clouded canopy, also a symbol of
          truth.

          - Some Masonic scholars think that as blue has, from
          ancient Biblical times, been associated with truth, with
          Deity, with wisdom and hope that blue came into Masonry
          as its color by natural association.  Others believe that
          as our ancient brethren met on hills and in vales, over
          which the blue vault of heaven is a ceiling, that blue,
          the color of the sky, is that of all celestial attributes
          for which Masons strive.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -  
                   The Masonic Service Association


11.  (b)  The THIRD DEGREE as we know it is about two hundred years
          old.

          - In 1716, the representatives of four lodges met in the
          Apple Tree Tavern in London, England, and decided to form
          a Grand Lodge for London.  They did so on June 24, 1717,

                                                            ...4
-  4  -
                            

          at the Goose and Gridiron Tavern.  They created a code
          and Constitution and the Old Charges.  Much of that work
          was done by the Rev. J. Theophilius Desaguliers, a Church
          of England clergyman of Huguenot descent and Dr. James
          Anderson, a Presbyterian.  In 1719, Desaguliers became
          Grand Master and in 1720, he was succeeded by George
          Payne.  The THIRD DEGREE was perfected about 1720-1721 by
          Desaguliers and the Legend of the Temple introduced.

          SOURCE:  The Origins of Freemasonry
                   - R.V. Harris, P.G.M. - November 11, 1945

12.  (a)  The best known Encyclopedia of Freemasonry is Mackey's.

13.  (b)  The Cornucopia is the Steward's symbol because it is a
          symbol of plenty.

          - In the early days the functions of the Stewards were to
          provide "plenty of refreshment".  According to Greek
          mythology, which goes back to the very dawn of
          civilization, the god Zeus was nourished in infancy from
          the milk of the goat Amalthea.  In gratitude the god
          placed Amalthea forever in the heavens as a
          constellation, but first he gave one of Amalthea's horns
          to his nurses with the assurance that it would forever
          pour whatever they desired!  The "horn of plenty" or the
          cornucopia, is thus a symbol of abundance.

          SOURCE:  Pocket Encyclopedia of Masonic Symbols - Masonic 
                   Service Association

14.  (b)  Corner stones are laid in the Northeast corner because it
          is the halfway point between the darkness of the North
          and the light of the East, thus symbolizing a beginning.

          - Those who build have left the "darkness" in which there
          is no building, and progressed toward the "light" to lay
          a foundation stone - a place, by which its position
          symbolizes movement away from blackness into day.

          The symbolism of the Northeast corner in the Entered
          Apprentice degree is taken from this ancient custom of
          laying the cornerstone in the Northeast corner.  He who
          stands there in lodge "a just and upright Mason" is
          himself a cornerstone of the lodge which will be!  A
          lodge is erected not only by, but upon, her sons.  The
          Entered Apprentice of today is the veteran Mason and
          lodge member of tomorrow.

                                                            ...5

-  5  -
                            

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
          The Masonic Service Association

15.  (b)  "Hele" means to cover or conceal.

          - "Hele" is an old Anglo-Saxon word meaning to cover or
          conceal.  "Hele and Conceal" is one of the many word
          pairs in the ritual which go back to the growth of the
          English language, when two words were often used to
          ensure that the hearer understood the meaning of at least
          one.  Other examples in Masonic ritual are "duly and
          truly", "worthy and well-qualified" and "free will and
          accord".

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association

16.  (b)  It is true that Phythagoras was initiated into several
          Orders of Priesthood.

          _ The ritual is not factual when discussing the Forty-
          seventh Problem in the symbolism of the Master's Carpet
          Lecture.  Phythagoras could hardly have been raised to
          the sublime degree of a Master Mason as this did not take
          even an ancient and simple form until centuries after he
          died.  Phythagoras was poor and could hardly have
          possessed a hecatomb (a hundred head of cattle).  He was
          a vegetarian and reverenced animal life; he would not
          have killed one cow, let alone a hundred, to "celebrate"
          his discovery.  It was Euclid who made the properties of
          a right-angled triangle his forty-seventh problem, even
          though the principles involved were apparently known to
          ancient mathematicians long before Pythagoras or Euclid.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association

17.  (c)  A pilaster is a right-angled columnar projection.

          - The dictionary defines a pilaster as a flat rectangular
          pillar having a capital and base, forming part of a wall.

18.  (d)  The DUE GUARD is a salute to a Worshipful Master.

          - It is universally used as a salute to the Master before
          the Altar and to the Wardens during the conferring of a
          degree.  Masonic authorities are not in complete
          agreement as to the derivation of the words although   


                                                            ...6
-  6  -
                            

          they unite as to what the words signify.  Mackey thinks
          the words mean "to duly guard against".  Other
          authorities are convinced that the phrase has a French
          derivation coming from "Dieu Garde" - God guard (you and
          me).

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association

19.  (b)  A Master is addressed a Worshipful as a token of great
          respect.

          - The word "worchyppe" or "worchyp" is Old English and
          means greatly respected.  In the Wycliffe Bible "Honor
          they father and thy mother" appears as "Worchyp thy fadir
          and thy modir".  English and Canadian Mayors are still
          addressed "Your Worship".  Worshipful, therefore, in
          modern Masonry continues an ancient word meaning,
          "greatly respected".

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry - 
                   The Masonic Service Association

20.  (c)  An Apprentice is "Entered" when his name is entered into
          the books of the lodge following the first degree.

          - In the Middle Ages, to become an operative freemason a
          young lad had to serve a seven year apprenticeship before
          he might ask to be permitted to make and submit to his
          superior his "Master's Piece" and be admitted as a
          "Fellow of the Craft".  Before he could serve his time he
          had to prove himself!  Therefore, he served a period of
          time as an Apprentice.  If at the end of that period he
          had shown himself possessed of the necessary
          qualifications of industry, character, decency and
          probity he was "entered on the books" of the Craft and
          became an "Entered Apprentice".

          Originally, an Apprentice was not a member of the Masonic
          Craft, even after being entered on the books of the
          lodge; not until he had passed his apprenticeship and had
          been accepted as a Fellow was he a Craftsman.  This
          practice gradually gave way to the modern idea and by
          1717, Apprentices initiated in lodges formed the bulk of
          the Craft.

          SOURCE:  One Hundred One Questions About Freemasonry -
                   The Masonic Service Association

THIS PAPER IS TO BE UTILIZED ALONG WITH ARTICLE 17A - TWENTY
QUESTIONS.