Was Sir Christopher Wren a Mason?


Was Sir Christopher Wren a Mason?

BRO. THE REV. F. DE P. CASTELLS, A.K.C.

(REPRINTED FROM VOL. 11. OF THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE AUTHORS LODGE )
London:
KENNING & SON
1917.


WAS SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN A MASON?

BY
BRO. THE REV. F. DE P. CASTELLS, A.K.C.

THE EVIDENCE FOR THE AFFIRMATIVE RE-STATED AND CRITICALLY EXAMINED*

IN the Book of Constitutions, published in 1738, it is distinctly asserted
that Wren was a Freemason, and the Grand Master of the Fraternity.
As the title of "Grand Master" began with the Grand Lodge of 1717,
all that it could mean when ascribed to Wren was that he had been the
acknowledged Head, President or Leading Spirit of the Masons in the
South of England, or, at least, of those in and around London. There
was indisputably a Masonic Brotherhood, and it must have had a Leader
of some sort.

Now, the late Bro. R.F. Gould in his "History of Freemasonry," has
disputed the statement of the Book of Constitutions, devoting no less
than fiftyfour pages to his attempt to disprove it. We all admire
Gould's erudition; his "History " is a monumental work. But

* This paper is the outcome of some correspondence by the writer with
Bro. the Rev. Canon Horsley in the columns of The Guardian, which began
by Canon Horsley telling the clergy of the Established Church that
the belief that Wren was a Freemason was "a popular delusion," without
an atom of proof. He suggested that possibly the delusion originated
by confusing our Order with the Masons' Company.


in this matter he has shown himself more learned than wise; for he
has placed himself in a false light, in which we see him as a carping
critic, cavilling, parrying with facts, and casting doubt upon everything
suggesting the thought of Wren being a Mason.

This tradition about Wren can be traced back to his lifetime; and,
better still, it was accepted as true by all Masonic writers until
1887, when Gould tried to upset it. Still, in reaffirming the unbroken
tradition of the last two hundred years, my object is not merely to
vindicate the memory of a worthy Brother, but to throw some light on
the period of Masonic history immediately preceding the formation of
the first Grand Lodge of England in 1717.*

As to Anderson's veracity, which some have called in question, we ought
to consider the following facts:

1. That Anderson was the official historian of the first Grand Lodge.

2. That the high position he occupied entitles him to some respect.

3. That he was on terms of intimacy with the leading members of at
least the four lodges that brought the Grand Lodge into being.

4. That although not connected with the lodge that claimed Wren, he
must have had access to most of the documents available for the compilation
of a Masonic history.

5. That in preparing this history he had the assistance of two excellent
Masonic scholars, Dr. Desaguliers, D.G.M., and George Payne, the antiquary.

6. That while some documents used in the compilation have perished
or gone astray, there remains collateral evidence for all the main
facts.

* This designation is used to conform to our way of speaking. In reality
that Grand Lodge did not claim the exclusive territorial jurisdiction
which it now exercises

7. That the two editions of the Constitutions, 1723 and 1738, were
submitted for examination and at length approved and authorised by
Grand Lodge.

Gould was not satisfied with these weighty considerations, but insisted
on absolute demonstration; and yet, on the other hand, when arguing
for the negative, he often assumed things which could not be proved.
Much of his reasoning turned on the silence of certain writers. If
Wren was a Freemason, he asked, how is it that in the Book of Constitutions
of 1723 he was not so designated? Why was it necessary to wait till
the second edition, in 1738, to have the fact officially put before
the Brethren? The question is a fair one; but generally speaking,
the gaps in a narrative, the omission of specific facts, the seeming
want of knowledge on the part of those who ought to know, mere silence
and analogous circumstances, although they may sometimes justify suspicion,
make a very poor foundation for positive arguments.

Gould felt that Anderson's silence in 1723 was fatal, and persuaded
himself that what he wrote about Wren in 1738 must be untrue. How,
then, are we to explain that silence? First of all, we should note
that no declaration on the subject was then expected or called for.
At the close of the Book of 1723 stress is laid on the fact that the
Fraternity had enjoyed the patronage of many kings, some of whom were
Masons. But surely no one could expect to find Wren's name among those
of the crowned heads of England ! The explanation of that silence should
be sought for in the circumstances attending the formation of the Grand
Lodge. For years Wren had many hostile critics, and they subjected
him to cruel attacks. Finding that some of his old friends became cold
and distant, he himself avoided company. His troubles did not reach
their culminating point until 1718, when he was dismissed from the
office of "Surveyor-General of the Royal Buildings," which he had held
for forty-nine years. He was then eighty-six years old, but he lived
five years longer. If then he neglected Freemasonry, as his contemporaries
say, we may see that there was a predisposing cause. It was that neglect,
together with the crisis in the building trade which followed the rebuilding
of London, which accounts for the period of comparative inactivity
in the sphere of Freemasonry. But that inactivity had its reaction
in the demand that arose for a National Grand Lodge. Wren was as highly
thought of as ever, but he was a spent force; his last few years were
passed (as he himself expressed it) " in the shaded that is, in comparative
obscurity. Thus arose the revolutionary movement whereby four out of
the twenty or more lodges in existence - a very small minority - undertook
to organise the desired Grand Lodge, the aged Architect being altogether
ignored. Need we wonder, then, if those innovators failed to call attention
to the disagreeable facts underlying the movement, and said nothing
about Wren? The first Book of Constitutions was prepared while Wren
was still living, an old man of ninety-one years of age; it was in
print since January 17th, when submitted to Grand Lodge; and it was
on sale when he died, on February 25th.

It was undesirable to refer to the then recent past, and Anderson was
wisely silent. But yet even the guarded statements he made in 1723
imply much of what I have said. Thus, the organization of a Grand Lodge
is represented as a revival of " the drooping lodges of London," and
he speaks of King Charles II. as " a great encourager of the craftsmen,"
because he " founded the present St. Paul's Cathedral . . . conducted
by the ingenious architect, Sir Christopher Wren." Gould seems to take
the words "ingenious architect" as excluding the thought of Wren as
a Brother: but how could the appointment of Wren have been an encouragement
of the craftsmen, if Wren was not of the craft at all? The idea underlying
the Book of 1723 is that there has been a revival of the Freemasonry
of Wren's time, who was still remembered by many; hence the passage:
" This fair Metropolis flourisheth, as well as other Parts, with several
worthy Particular lodges that have quarterly communications, and an
annual Grand Assembly wherein the forms and usages of the most ancient
and worshipful Fraternity are wisely propagated, etc."

Then, as to Wren's Grand Mastership, we may see how it was that Anderson
referred to it in 1738. It was not motu proprio. On February 24th,
1738, the Grand Lodge appointed a Committee to revise the Book of 1723,
ordering that the work, when finished, should be submitted for approval.
And on March 31st Anderson was officially requested " to print the
names (in his new Book of Constitutions) of all the Grand Masters that
could be collected." This would make it necessary to mention Wren;
but now, the extraordinary proceedings by which the Grand Lodge was
established, had been vindicated by the results; and as nothing succeeds
like success, and Wren had been dead many years, the reference to the
past could scarcely provoke any disturbance. When, therefore, the new
Book came out, in 1738, it contained this explicit declaration: "Wren
continued as Grand Master until 1708, when his neglect of the office
'caused the Lodges to be more and more disused.' "

Having advanced some of my reasons for relying on the veracity of Anderson,
I now proceed to present such evidence as there is of Wren's connection
with the craft. In affirming that he was a Mason, however, I do not
depend on any particular witness, but rather on the fact that the evidence
comes from three separate sources, none of which is connected with
the others, or with Anderson.

The first of these sources of information is a London newspaper, the
Postboy. In its second issue (No. 5245) after Wren's death, when announcing
that he was to be interred on March 5th, he is described as "that worthy
Freemason." A few days later, on March 9th, another newspaper, the
British Journal, in reporting that the interment had taken place, describes
him in those identical words. Gould dismisses this latter witness by
saying that the phrase must have been copied from the Postboy. It is
an unwarranted assumption, but we need not haggle over it. He also
speculates on the silence of the rest of the British press. But it
suffices for our purpose that one single newspaper used the phrase
in 1723; for, if Wren was said to be a Freemason in 1723, the notion
did not originate with Anderson in 1738. Moreover, if what was said
thus publicly was not true, how are we to account for the fact that
it was not contradicted? It is idle to ask whence had the editor derived
his information. Gould has cut the knot by making the astounding suggestion
that the editor was deliberately lying with a mercenary purpose. But
on what grounds? Simply because the number of the Postboy which referred
to Wren as " that worthy Freemason," contained also an advertisement
of the newly - published Book of Constitutions. The suggestion is that
the editor, being interested in the sale of that Book, was resorting
to a vulgar dodge which he thought would create a demand for the publication.
Is it not a thousand pities that Gould descended to the point of making
such imputations? And is it not absurd to imagine that there was any
desire to sell that Book to outsiders? My explanation of the matter
is as follows: The Postboy had apparently some Freemasons on its staff,
and was on that account favoured by the Brethren in London; hence,
while the publishers of the Book of Constitutions patronised the paper
by supplying an advertisement, the editor was ready to insert any news
that might be of interest to Masons. This implies that the reference
to Wren as a Mason was addressed to a circle of readers comprising
some men who were in a position either to confirm it, if true, or to
contradict it, if false. The fact that no effort to substantiate the
reference was made reflects the confidence of the editor. And the words
" that worthy Freemason," must mean not merely that he was a Brother,
but that all Freemasons were aware of it, and that he had ranked high
in the Fraternity.

Our second source of information is to be found in the statement made
by Aubrey in 1691 on the MS. of his "Natural History of Wiltshire,"
according to which Sir Christopher was to undergo some Ceremony in
a Masonic Convention, arranged for the day when he wrote - viz. May
18th. The original MS. is now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and
in addition, there is preserved at Burlington House a transcript which
was made by Aubrey himself for the Royal Society. The statement referred
to consists of two paragraphs, which read as follows:

1691 after Rogation Sunday 
"Mdm, this day [May the 18th being Monday] is a great convention at
St. Paul's Church of the Fraternity of

Accepted 
the Free Masons: where Sr Christopher Wren is to be adopted a Brother:
and Sr Henry Goodric . . . of ye Tower, and divers others. There has
been Kings, that were of this sodalitie. - Sr William Dugdale told
me many years since, that about Henry the third's time, the 
Patents

Pope gave a Bull or diploma to a Company of Italian Freemasons

Architects to travell up and downe over all Europe to build Churches.
From those are derived the Fraternity of Adopted-Masons.

Free-Masons. They are known to one another by certayn Signes & Marks
and Watchwords; it continues to this day. They have severall Lodges
in severall Counties for their reception: and when any of them fall
into decay, the brotherhood is to relieve him, etc. The manner of their
Adoption is very formall, and with an Oath of Secrecy."

It is impossible to tell how Aubrey heard of the Convention; but what
he knew about the Brotherhood was obtained from Sir William Dugdale,
who had died five years before, in 1686. Dugdale had good reason to
be interested in the subject because, in 1668, a daughter of his had
married Elias Ashmole, of whom there is positive information that he
was initiated in Speculative Freemasonry as early as October 16th,
1646.

Now, if Wren was known to have taken part in a Masonic Convention in
1691, the notion of his being a Freemason could not have been invented
by the Postboy at the time of his death, still less by Anderson in
1738. But to what has Gould to object? He argues that Aubrey was somewhat
superstitious and therefore unreliable; and he calls his words a mere
prognostication, assuming of course that it did not come off. On the
other hand he allows that the memorandum is a bit of real evidence
- "the sole shred of evidence," he calls it. But the evidential value
of that memorandum lies in the fact that it was written without any
ulterior motive, at the back of a page of a MS. which was private property
and remained so for the following 153 years. The MS. was not published
until 1847, and the Memorandum did not come under public notice until
1844, when printed by the late Mr. Halliwell. Gould has admitted that
before 1844 it had not been printed "or in any way alluded to." It
is, therefore, a distinct strand in the threefold cord.

Gould goes on to say: " Several members of the Royal Society became
Masons; but none of them is known to have left behind any written reference
to Aubrey's memorandum; therefore it could have made no deep impression
on them, and if this be so, we may disregard it." But he has yet to
prove that any of the men he has in mind ever saw the memorandum. Aubrey's
MS. was indeed in the library of the Royal Society, but why should
any particular member single out that particular MS. out of the piles
of other volumes? Not all were keen about Wiltshire, and not all were
naturalists. It is just because the MS. lay neglected and unnoticed
until the year 1844 that its witness is so important. For, obviously,
neither Anderson nor the Postboy could have been influenced by it 
they must have derived their information from other sources. True,
Aubrey merely says that Wren was " to be adopted." But we cannot call
that a prophecy, any more than the agenda paper on the chairman's table
would be called a prophecy. For Aubrey scribbled his memorandum on
the selfsame day, when all the arrangements must have been made, the
sort of arrangements which are seldom cancelled, and in a few hours
the Convention would be a thing of the past. Subsequently, Aubrey made
his copy of the MS. for the Royal Society, and reproduced the memorandum
word for word; if the Convention had not been held, would he have allowed
his statement to remain unaltered?

Our third source of information is the Lodge of Antiquity, through
the medium of Preston's book "Illustrations of Masonry," the fountain
from which the Masons of two continents have been drinking freely for
140 years and more. Preston has come in for very rough treatment at
Gould's hands, who has quoted all that his detractors have to say.
In the columns of The Guardian, too, Canon Horsley remarked that in
1797 Prof. John Robison (who regarded Anderson's writings as "a heap
of rubbish") wrote about Preston, that he "displayed a capacity of
belief and a capability of assertion which are hardly paralleled at
the present day by the utterances of the company promoter, or even
of the mining engineer." It may be well to remember, however, that
the Professor was a bigoted anti-masonic writer who in 1797 published
a book entitled "Proofs of a Conspiracy by Freemasons," which in Chambers's
Biographical Dictionary has been described as "a monument of credulity."
Woodford's Masonic Cyclopedia says of Preston that he was "a painstaking
and accurate writer." And even Gould in a footnote, said: " I readily
admit that, at the period of original publication, the 'Illustrations
of Masonry' was, by a long way, the best book of its kind."

The chief objection brought against Preston is that in each successive
edition of his work he gave some additional details. This was really
so; but does it justify the charge of romancing? What it proves is
that Preston was eager to embody in his history every bit of information
which he gleaned by study. The first edition, in 1772, followed Anderson,
because at the time Preston knew no more. But in the edition of 1775,
being W.M. of Wren's lodge, he added that "Wren presided over the old
Lodge of St. Paul's during the building of the cathedral," and that
the said lodge owned the mallet used in laying the foundation stone.
Again, in the edition of 1792, Preston stated that the said mallet
was a gift of Sir Christopher Wren himself, and that " during his presidency
he presented to the lodge three mahogany candlesticks," which were
still in use at the time of writing.

We see, then, that the additions, far from being objectionable, assist
our inquiry. For they are no mere repetitions of what others had said,
but are derived from documents in the possession of the oldest of the
lodges which united to organise the Grand Lodge of 1717. The three
men who worked on the Book of Constitutions belonged to a different
lodge, No. 4, and it is quite possible that they may not have seen
those documents. Lodge No. 4, the Lodge of Anderson, Desaguliers and
Payne, had more members than the other three put together, and all
of them noblemen or professional gentlemen; whereas Lodge No. 1, the
Lodge of Antiquity (formerly called of Old St. Paul's) consisted of
humble folk, not one being of sufficient rank to be described as Esqgire.
But this lodge was the Senior Lodge, and an important link with the
past. The mallet preserved there, was an interesting historic relic.
The candlesticks, given by Wren, too, were of value as proving that
the internal arrangement of a lodge prior to 1717 was practically the
same as now. But "the records of the Lodge of Antiquity," said to go
back to 1663, have a decisive effect on the question under discussion.
For there are but two alternatives: either they existed or they did
not. If not, Preston was lying flagrantly - which is untenable because
of what Gould himself says: " It is irrational to suppose that Preston
. . . would have cited the authority of writings which did not exist.
Some members, at least, of the Lodge of Antiquity might have been in
a position to contradict him, and an appeal to imaginary or lost documents
would have been as senseless an insult to their understandings as it
would to those of readers of these pages, were I to appeal to the 'Book
of Merlin,' etc." But if the records did exist, then there really was
contemporary documentary evidence of Wren's connection with the Fraternity,
and Preston was surely using that evidence to confirm what was then
generally believed. Preston says that "according to the records of
the Lodge of Antiquity," in 1663 and after, Wren "attended the meetings
of the Lodge," and also that he patronized the said lodge " for eighteen
years" - by which he may mean that he was W.M.

What I have said so far shows, then, that there are three independent
but concurrent lines of evidence. And the testimony thence derived
goes to prove that at some period of his life the world-famous architect
of St. Paul's Cathedral had become a Mason. Our witnesses may not agree
in every detail, but probably their discrepancies are more apparent
than real, and our inability to reconcile them may mean, not that they
are wrong in what they say, but that there is a deficiency on our part,
because of course we do not know all the circumstances of the case.
Generally speaking, it is possible that what has been reported may
be substantially true, while some details may have to be corrected.
In the present case, all our witnesses agree in one thing - viz., that
Wren was a Freemason; and therefore not only is the cumulative effect
of their testimony overwhelming, but I feel that the conclusion reached
is as well established as any of the facts depending on external testimony
for their credibility.

The matter might be left to rest here; but there is a serious objection
which calls for consideration, and which must not be shirked. According
to Aubrey, Wren was " to be adopted a Brother" in 1691; but the other
witnesses declare that he was Grand Master long before that year. The
conflicting dates do create a problem; but is this problem really insoluble?
Let us see. According to Preston and Anderson, Wren was a principal
officer of the Fraternity since 1663; in the language of a later day,
too, he was made Senior Grand Warden. The two authorities quoted agree
also in making Wren Grand Master in 1685, when fifty-three years old.
But now, as Aubrey says that Wren was to be "adopted" in 1691, Gould
argues that the statements of Anderson and Aubrey are "mutually destructive."
This is on the supposition that "adopted" means "initiated." But what
if Aubrey was referring to some other Masonic ceremony? Naturally,
if he was not a Mason, he would scarcely know the difference between
" initiating" and " installing."

Gould, in his eagerness to show that others were at fault, has made
a slip, saying: "If he presided over the Society in 1663...." As a
matter of fact no one has said this. In 1663 Wren was made S.G.W.,
and this statement accords with the circumstances as we know them.
For although in 1663 Wren was only thirty-one years of age, he had
already achieved great distinction. He had been Assistant to the Surveyor
General since 1661. In 1662, the fabric of Old St. Paul's was shaky,
and the Dean and Chapter asked him to examine it; this led to the King
appointing a Commission in 1663, and soon after, Wren himself became
a Commissioner, The project for a new cathedral was now set on foot,
and as Wren was regarded as the fittest man for such a work, in 1666
(just before the London Fire) he was asked for a design. But why should
he have been made S.G.W. then? Let us consider the facts.

1. Anderson in 1723 wrote that the King was "a great Encourager of
the Craftsmen," and set Wren to build the new Cathedral on that account.

2. Wren's own son, speaking of the "Free and Accepted Masons," says
that they were "chiefly employed in the execution of the work."

3. There was a Masonic Lodge which actually took its name from Old
St. Paul's, which met at the GOOSE AND GRIDIRON in St. Paul s Churchyard.

4. This lodge had had a former Surveyor-General, Inigo Jones, for its
W.M. This statement does not rest merely on Anderson's second Book
of Constitutions, for it appeared in the Dublin Constitutions in 1730,
having been made in both cases on the authority of the MS. of Nicholas
Stone, which was destroyed by fire in 1720.

5. It is with that lodge that Aubrey and others have connected Wren.

The corrections which Aubrey made in his memorandum suggest that he
was in doubt as to whether he used the right words. He perhaps knew,
or he suspected, that the Masons had a phraseology of their own. Therefore
all that his memorandum can prove is, that Wren was to be received
at the Convention of 1691 in some capacity, leaving it to us to find
out what the character of that reception was. The ceremony, whatever
it was, could not have been an initiation. If a man like Wren had any
inclination towards Freemasonry, it is incredible that he would have
put off his initiation till he was sixty-one years old. And it is most
unlikely that any outsider would have known of a candidate before his
admission, seeing that the Brethren were bound by "an oath of secrecy"
and had signs and watchwords. The term "adopted" could have the sense
of "initiated," but it was capable of other meanings; while the phrase
"a great Convention of the Fraternity" could scarcely refer to the
working of a private lodge at its regular meeting. Again, in 1691,
while the new cathedral was in building, the old St. Paul's Lodge must
have consisted largely of the men employed in the work. (The statement
made by Wren's own son as to the Freemasons being "chiefly employed"
implies as much.) Can we then imagine the architect being a stranger
to such a lodge? If so, how could the mysterious Brotherhood have obtained
the use of the building for their Convention? This fact alone implies,
at least, that Wren was a patron of the craft.

It is evident that a Masonic function of some sort took place in 1691,
and that Wren took a conspicuous part in it. Aubrey heard of it some
hours before, but not being a Mason he could have had no clear idea
of its nature naturally he formed the idea that it was a case of the
quaint Brotherhood receiving new members; and this brought to mind
what Dugdale told him " many years since" about the Freemasons. The
problem centres, therefore, in the expression " to be adopted," which
is ambiguous. After 225 years, we can merely conjecture what happened,
but there are a few facts to guide us Let us see what interpretations
the expression will bear.

1. In the list appearing in the official Masonic Calendar of 1729,
the old St. Paul's Lodge is entered as founded in 1691, the year of
Aubrey's Convention; but that fact is misleading. What happened in
1691 was (as Gould points out) that the said lodge, "from being an
occasional, became a stated lodge." And this implies that not only
Wren, but all the old Masons who had been meeting more or less informally,
were now to be "adopted" in the reconstituted lodge, in which there
may, or there may not have been, the distinction between subscribing
and honorary members. Preston says that Wren attended that lodge in
earlier days, but does not explain in what capacity, whether as an
ordinary member, or as a visitor, or as S.G.W.; but he uses the word
"patronised," which suggests an honorary position; this may have been
his position before, but by his " adoption" or reception into the
reconstituted
lodge, he may have become a full subscribing member.

2. Or, it may be, that the members of the reconstituted lodge had arranged
to give a welcome or reception to the eminent Brother - in which case
the expression "to be adopted" would simply mean his election, reselection,
or recognition as an honorary member, to be done probably by acclamation.
We adopt distinguished Masons now, and our ancient Brethren were equally
free to do it. Obviously, if the lodge consisted of brethren employed
in the cathedral, the directing architect would be a privileged member,
while any other Brother of rank coming with him (like Sir Henry Goodric,
expressly mentioned by Aubrey) would be sure of being honoured in a
similar way.

3. Again, there is the possibility that the ceremony which Wren had
to undergo was not merely a reception, but his reselection and installation
as W.M. of the reorganised lodge. For even if he was already recognised
as President of the Fraternity, he would not be debarred from taking
the office of W.M. in a private lodge; indeed, we must suppose that
he was serving in that capacity somewhere, the lower position qualifying
him for the higher. Our ancient Brethren were much freer than we are,
and they did not always act in what we should now think the right mode
of procedure.

4. But apparently the "great Convention" was not the meeting of any
private lodge at all; it was rather a general assembly of the whole
"Fraternity of the Accepted Masons"; and the work done was such as
to affect other lodges besides that of St. Paul's. This is fully borne
out by one of our bitterest enemies, Samuel Pritchard, who, in his
book " Masonry Dissected " (1730), while arguing that Freemasonry cannot
be very ancient, makes this remark: " No constituted Lodges or Quarterly
communications were heard of till 1691, when lords, dukes, lawyers
and shopkeepers and other inferior tradesmen, porters not excepted,
were admitted in this mystery or no mystery." Here is collateral evidence
for Aubrey's testimony; clearly the Convention did take place. And
presumably the adoption of Wren was his re-adoption, or reselection,
as Grand Master, when he would be installed and proclaimed and saluted
as such. "Sir Henry Goodric . . . of ye Tower, and divers others" may
have been the officers who were to be appointed or invested on the
same occasion. Nor is there anything forced in this idea of a reselection;
for, according to the Stone MS., Inigo Jones, who, like Wren, had once
combined the two offices of Surveyor-General and President of the Masonic
Fraternity, ceased to hold the second title in 1618, but was subsequently
"reselected." Certainly the Freemasons never appointed their Grand
Masters for life.

The year 1764 saw the publication of "The Compleat Freemason, or Multa
Paucis for Lovers of Secrets," a book which deserves looking into.
Here is one very important extract: " In 1710, in the eighth year of
the reign of Queen Anne, our worthy Grand Master Wren, who had drawn
the Design of St. Paul's, had the honour to see it finished in a magnificent
taste, and to celebrate with the Fraternity, the Capestone of so noble
and large a Temple." Gould passes this over as quite unimportant; but
the clause "to celebrate with the Fraternity," is in perfect agreement
with what Wren's own son said in his book " Parentalia," for there
he wrote as follows: "The highest or last stone on the top of the lantern,
was laid by the hand of the Surveyor's son, Christopher Wren, deputed
by his Father, in the presence of that excellent Artificer, Mr. Strong,
his son, and other Free and Accepted Masons, chiefly employed in the
execution of the work." As by that time Wren was already seventy-eight
years of age, he had a good reason for deputing his son to climb up
to the top of the lantern above the cupola of St. Paul's. It is true
(as Gould keeps reminding us) that the son said nothing of his father's
activities as a Mason, but why should he tell publicly of what his
father did in connection with a secret society? Still, this reference
to the "Free and Accepted Masons," in which he gives them "chiefly"
the credit for "the execution" of his father's designs, is significant,
for it gives us to understand that they had come to celebrate the capestone
in an official capacity, and so their "presence" involves the idea
of a Masonic function. The elder Wren was clearly heart and soul with
the Brethren, although he could not get up to the lantern. The son
does not state in so many words that his father was a Mason, but the
connection is hinted at, and his silence is obviously the silence of
discreetness. Many other eminent men of the period were Freemasons;
the writers who denounced Freemasonry two hundred years ago, like Samuel
Pritchard, admitted the fact; but yet, for the most part, those titled
Freemasons of the seventeenth century went to their graves without
the fact of their Masonic affiliation being divulged. The Brethren
were bound by "an oath of secrecy," and had signs and watchwords; why
wonder, therefore, at the silence about Wren?

The book "Multa Pages" has yet another bit of information; it says:
"Our good old Grand Master Wren, being struck with age and infirmity,
did from this time [1710] forward, retire from all manner of Business,
and, on account of his Disability, could no more attend the Lodges
in visiting and regulating their meetings as usual. This occasioned
the number of regular Lodges to be greatly reduced; but they regularly
assembled in Hopes of having again a noble Patron at their Head."

There is no need to examine the writers later than Preston, because
they have nothing new to tell us. But I may recall the fact that the
Browne MS., which was once in the possession of the late Bro. W.J.
Hughan, author of "Old Charges of British Freemasons" (1872), bears
a note by an anonymous hand which is to the effect that the original
(of which the said MS. was a transcript) was found among the papers
of Sir Christopher Wren. If this were an isolated statement, we might
disregard it altogether; but it accords with the information derived
from other quarters, and we must, therefore, assume that it is true.

Having carefully examined such scraps of information as have been handed
down, of the Masonic career of the distinguished man to whose talent
and energy we owe England's chief sanctuary, I must now reaffirm my
conviction that our tradition about him is historically sound, and
that he really presided over the Fraternity before there was a National
Grand Lodge as we know it. The combined testimony of the various witnesses
is irresistible. And forasmuch as we cannot imagine the possibility
of collusion between such witnesses (who lived in different periods
and were actuated by deferent motives) the conclusion reached appears
to me to be absolutely and incontestably proved.

POSTSCRIPT

What precedes was delivered as a Lecture. Since then, however, having
seen the records of the Lodge of Antiquity which Bro Rylands has brought
to light, I feel that the question is absolutely settled. The Lodge
had once records that went back to 1663. But when an Inventory was
made in 1778, everything anterior to 1721 had disappeared. This is
referred to in a Memorandum as "the outrage," because it was a case
of misappropriation. Still, the few records now extant are ample to
satisfy any one. Thus, the Minutes of a Meeting held on June 3, 1723,
give the substance of what the Brethren had decided: "The set of Mahogany
Candlesticks presented to this Lodge by its worthy old Master, Sir
Christopher Wren, ordered to be carefully deposited in a wooden case
lin'd with cloth to be Immediately purchased for the purpose." The
reason for this was that as "the worthy old Master" of the Lodge had
died, they were anxious to preserve the candlesticks as precious mementos
of his connection with the Lodge. There is also a Memorandum about
a "General Assembly of a greate Number of Free Masons Held on the 24th
of June, 172I," which is remarkable for including among those present
"Christopher Wren, Esq.," the only son of the architect, whose name
reappears in a similar way eight years later. Obviously the son was
one of those who helped to bring the premier Grand Lodge into existence;
thus we can understand that the father should have appointed him as
his deputy when the Fraternity celebrated the Capestone in 1710. And
yet Gould, when he wrote his History, did not know that anyone had
ever claimed the son as a member of our Order ! The question has been
raised whether the original Lodge of Antiquity was one of Speculative
Freemasons. The three Candlesticks afford good ground for presumption,
but let the Members of the Lodge speak for themselves. In the Minutes
of a Meeting on November 3, 1722, we read: " The Master reported the
proceedings of the Grand Lodge and Bro. Anderson's appointment to revise
the old Constitutions. It was the Opinion of the Lodge that the Master
and his Wardens do attend every Committee during the revisal of the
Constitutions that no variation may be made in the Antient Establishment."
This zeal to maintain the old order enables us to affirm positively
that the Grand Lodge of 1717 did not create Freemasonry, but simply
reorganised the Fraternity.