Rituals In Canadian Masonic Jurisdictions

W. Bro. John E. Taylor, P.M.

The mobility in Canadian society today takes many Masons from one province to another. When these brethren visit, or affiliate with, Lodges in their new home communities they may be surprised to find differences in the workings, and they may wonder what accounts f or the diversity within one nation. To review ritualistic practice in Freemasonry throughout Canada and to discover the reasons for such differences as exist is the purpose of this Paper.

Freemasonry in Canada owes its beginnings to many sources and, generally speaking, followed the course of history from East to West. Many early Lodges, some of which are still extant, derived from Military Lodges, whose warrants were carried with Regiments of the British Army stationed in British North America. The Grand Lodges of England Antient and Modern and of Ireland issued such warrants. In the nineteenth century these Grand Lodges, the former two now together as the United Grand Lodge of England, granted civilian warrants, and they were joined in this practice by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. A few of these Lodges still hold to their original allegiance: two in Quebec, one in Nova Scotia, and the District Grand Lodges of England and Scotland in Newfoundland.

The American colonies had not yet become the United States of America when Masonry first came to Eastern Canada, and communication, notably of Nova Scotia, with the New England colonies was common. This influenced Masonry in what are now the Maritime Provinces and serves to explain why the American pattern in ritual prevailed there; this had been set when Grand Lodges were established following Independence, a quarter-century before the Union of the rival Grand Lodges in England and the sittings of the Lodge of Reconciliation, which decided the content of the Craft ceremonies and ritual for English Freemasonry.

Every Grand Lodge has had to face a decision about uniformity in ritual, although, in the attitude of the United Grand Lodge of England, this tends to make a mountain out of a molehill. Brother Harry Carr, Secretary of Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, London, has written in a recent Lodge summons

In a recent survey of Ritual 'workings' used by Lodges of Instruction, it was found that there were some eighteen 'named workings' in practice in the London area alone, and, in addition. no fewer than nine Lodges who claim to be using their 'own working', i.e. some twenty-seven different versions in London. There are many more in the Provinces, where every large centre seems to boast its own peculiar forms, e.g., York, Bristol, Exeter, Oxford, Humber, etc.

A survey of Freemasonry in Canada may not reveal this variety of "workings", but differences do exist and these tend to add interest in Lodge visiting.

Among the English "workings" the influence of one became dominant in Canada; this was the Emulation Ritual as demonstrated in the Emulation Lodge of Improvement, founded in 1823 to teach and maintain the standard of ceremonies said to be those of the Lodge of Reconciliation. For more than a century the Emulation Lodge disapproved of a printed ritual but, in 1969, reversed this policy and decided upon publication of the Emulation Ritual with Rubrics. The United Grand Lodge of England has never recognized any printed ritual as official.

In surveying the Canadian scene from East to West the intention is to relate the present "workings" to the backgrounds of the several Grand Lodges, to point to some differences in the non-esoteric work, and to ascertain that, notwihstanding some internal disturbances along the way, an essential harmony has emerged in the nine Grand Lodges and two District Grand Lodges which represent Craft Masonry in Canada.

These District Grand Lodges make for the first anomaly and suggest Newfoundland as a starting point.


Newfoundland, heretofore, a self-governing Dominion, became a province of Canada in 1949, and its Craft Lodges continue, as before, to bear allegiance to the Grand Lodges of England or Scotland. District Grand Lodges of these Jurisdictions function in amity. The former numbers nineteen and the latter ten Lodges.

"The First Masonic Lodges in Newfoundland", an Association paper by M. W. the late R. V. Harris, tells of Lodges in the period 1746 to 1832, by which date all had ceased to exist. The privately printed "Freemasonry in Newfoundland", by K. C. Skuce, O.B.E., P.M., records revival of the Craft in 1848 under dispensation from the Provincial Grand Master in Nova Scotia. Upon direct petition to the United Grand Lodge of England, St. John's Lodges No. 579, was granted a Charter dated June 5, 1850. This Lodge continues in being. The District Grand Lodge was created in 1870 and celebrated its Centennial in 1970. Marking the occasion, an informative history, entitled God is Our Guide. has been written by Bro. James R. Thoms

The Grand Lodge of Scotland chartered Lodge Tasker, No. 454, in 1866. To mark its Centennial, a well-illustrated history was prepared by Wor. Bro. B. R. Taylor. Thus English and Scottish Freemasonry have recorded their past.

Lodges of the English Constitution adopted and use the Emulation Ritual, with two exceptions which practise the "Ancient York" working. Some variations and local modifications are in effect in the case of each working. Scottish Lodges had an early ritual known as the "Duncan", which was taught, as was the custom, by word of mouth; no copy is available. Changes in working made more than fifty years ago brought the "Standard Ritual of Scottish Freemasonry" to the Scottish Lodges, and this is in general use among them.

St. John's Lodge carries on a tradition of saluting the Wardens, which prevailed in all the English Lodges until 1905. At that time also alteration was made in the position of certain furniture of the Lodge, to the present arrangement.


In 1733 Henry Price of Boston was appointed Provincial Grand Master of New England and "the dominions and territories thereunto belonging"; his jurisdiction was extended in the following year to all of North America. Price thereupon established a Provincial Grand Lodge and "The First Lodge" (now St. John's Lodge) in Boston.

Longley and Harris, in their A Short History of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia, tell of Price's activity in furthering Freemasonry. In 1738 he appointed Major Erasmus James Philipps as Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia, and the latter then founded what was "virtually a military lodge" at Annapolis Royal, where he was stationed with the garrison. Upon the founding of Halifax in 1749, Masons there desired a Lodge, and in due course Philipps granted a Warrant, which arrived in Halifax July 19, 1750 (now St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1). In 1757 the recently formed "Antient" Grand Lodge chartered Lodges in Halifax and established a Provincial Grand Lodge. Thistle Lodge (now Keith No. 17) was chartered in 1827 by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, which later set up a Provincial Grand Lodge. The Scottish Lodges organized the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia in 1866, which the English Lodges joined in 1869. One Lodge remained in allegiance to the United Grand Lodge of England.

The 1870 Constitution provided that:

The work styled 'Ancient York Rite' is adopted by this Grand Lodge with permission to those lodges now working the English Lodge of Emulation work to continue that work so long as they shall desire to do so. At Grand Lodge in 1906 the "Ancient York" work was exemplified, and this Rite, "as practised in the State of New York", was adopted, with permission to two particular Lodges "working the ritual of the Grand Lodges of England and Canada" to continue to do so. This "Ancient York" ritual was printed in 1947 as "The Authorized Work", which has been adopted by most of the Lodges.


Prince Edward Island remained a self-governing colony until 1873, when it entered Confederation. Island Masons, included in the Nova Scotia jurisdiction, became detached when the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia was formed in 1869. and, following a memorandum to the United Grand Lodge of England, Adam Murray was appointed District Grand Master in 1870. One Scottish Lodge continued in Charlottetown. After 1873 the Island Lodges, having witnessed the formation of Grand Lodges in other Provinces, decided to follow the same course; the Grand Lodge of Prince Edward Island accordingly came into being in 1875.

An early resolution of the new Grand Lodge adopted the working of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick, which was based on the Massachusetts ritual. This, however, was never implemented, and the Lodges continued to use a "cipher" ritual known as the "Webb Work", which was available from a New York publisher. One Lodge later used Lester's "Look to the East", which had practically the same wording spelled out in plain English, with the addition of some of the monitorial material. Actually the use of these printed aids was unofficial, and lip-service was given to the oral tradition of instruction.

The desire for uniform practice, officially recognized, was expressed from time to time, and in 1950 the recently-printed Nova Scotia ritual was recommended by the Board of General Purposes and adopted by Grand Lodge. An understanding with the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia made this available. Early objection by some of the Lodges, however, led to reconsideration, and Grand Lodge finally decided in 1953 that the "Old Work" would be the official ritual, but provided that any Lodge wishing to use the Nova Scotia ritual might do so under dispensation from the Grand Master. Hence two versions of what is, in effect, the same working prevail.


New Brunswick became a separate Colony in 1784 but remained Masonically under the jurisdiction of the Provincial Grand Lodge at Halifax, which was known as "The Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons in the Province of Nova Scotia in North America and the Masonic Jurisdiction thereto belonging." (And they say that the present Ontario title is cumbersome!)

There were Masons in Military Lodges with British regiments after the capture of Fort Beausejour, and Freemasonry was active also in the New England forces which participated in the occupation. These were transitory, however, and in 1783 the Loyalist Provincial Regiments on the Saint John River were disbanded. According to Dr. Thomas Walker. P.G.M., quoted from an article on New Brunswick Masonry.

The history of Freemasonry in New Brunswick may be said to have commenced the 7th of November 1783, when Jared Betts wrote from St. Ann's, Nova Scotia, now Fredericton, N.B., … to Joseph Peters, Secretary of Lodge No. 211, Halifax, to know if he could proceed under a warrant which he held (Irish) … The authority of this warrant was denied but a dispensation was actually issued from two warranted lodges, Nos. 155 and 211, then existing in Halifax…. New Brunswick was made a separate province in 1784 and the first lodge instituted there, September 7th, 1784 was Hiram Lodge.

The present Grand Lodge was formed in 1867 and has a ritual based on that used in Massachusetts. This is the so-called "Ancient York" work ("American"), which varies from the workings in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island only in slight details. A fully written "Master" ritual is retained by Grand Lodge, and for many years no transcription was permitted, the ritual being memorized for passing by-word of mouth. In 1944, however, "The Ceremonies of Craft Masonry from Standard Authority" was put in print, with the words abbreviated to one letter.

The three Maritime Provinces' workings thus follow the American pattern. Lodge business is conducted in the Third Degree, and a section of this degree is dramatized. Labour is dispensed with or a call made to Refreshment before opening in one of the other degrees for some specific purpose. The Working Tools are not wholly identical with those in English practice, and Emblems include the Beehive, the Pot of Incense, the Anchor and Ark, the 47th Problem of Euclid, the Hour Glass and the Scythe. The Nova Scotia and New Brunswick rituals print the "Tyler's Oath", and that of New Brunswick details the preparation of candidates. They have separate Monitorial booklets, but Prince Edward Island uses the American "Sickel's" Monitor. Thus general uniformity exists in this area.


Freemasonry was brought to Quebec by the military lodges in the British Regiments whichparticipated in the Siege and Capture of the City of Quebec in 1759. Subsequently a Provincial Grand Lodge was established under the authority of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns). The full story has been told by R. W. Bro. A. J. B. Milborne in his book Freemasonry in the Province of Quebec: The first Provincial Grand Lodge lasted thirty-three years. In 1792 the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lower Canada was formed, and H.R.H. the Duke of Kent was appointed Provincial Grand Master by Warrant issued by the Grand Lodge of England (Ancients). It was an active body and Warrants were issued to constitute Lodges as far West as Detroit. In 1822, its jurisdiction was divided into two Provincial Grand Lodges, one for the District of Quebec and Three Rivers, the other for the District of Montreal and William Henry. These two grand bodies continued until 1855, when the Grand Lodge of Canada was formed. The present Grand Lodge of Quebec was established in 1869.

In an educational Bulletin (1950), V. W. Bro. R. J. Meekren suggested that Emulation working was introduced into Canada in 1825 by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Montreal and William Henry, through the instrumentality of the Provincial Grand Master, William McGillivary. The Ritual in use by Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Canada was adopted by the Grand Lodge of Quebec, and revised in 1874. It was revised again in 1878 particularly in the material of the Lectures.

There are some exceptions in that certain Lodges use other than the official ritual, for specific reasons. Scottish Lodges joining the Grand Lodge of Quebec in 1881 were permitted to retain their Scottish working. Three Lodges in Montreal work in the French language, and one of these preserves some elements found in early French rituals. A few Lodges in the Eastern Townships close to the United States border use the "Ancient York" ritual, notably Golden Rule Lodge, No. 5, Stanstead (Chartered 1813). Stanstead brethren were earlier members of Lively Stone Lodge, No. 22, Vermont Registry. (1) Moreover, John Barney, a Vermont Mason who had been in Boston to learn the Craft lectures of Thomas Smith Webb, visited Quebec Lodges in that area to propagate American working.


In 1791 Upper Canada came into being, and a year later William Jarvis, Secretary of the Province, was appointed Provincial Grand Master of the new Provincial Grand Lodge (Ancients). The seat of government was at Newark, now Niagara-on-the-Lake, and the first Lodge warranted by Jarvis was Niagara, No. 2, which remains senior in the present roll of Lodges. Ancient St. John's Lodge, No. 3, warranted in 1795, followed and continues still as No. 3. at Kingston.

With the growth in population and expansion of Upper Canada the numbers of Masons increased, and the Grand Lodge of Ireland became represented by a group of Lodges. There were periods of activity, quiet, and contention. Stemming from the Irish Lodges a rival Grand Lodge of Canada was formed in 1855, to confound the Provincial Grand Lodge of Canada West. The latter proclaimed itself in 1857 as the "Ancient Grand Lodge of Canada", but in 1858 the whole issue was resolved by union of the two bodies, with the Grand Master of the former as the first ruler of the "Grand Lodge of Canada".

A ritual based on the Emulation working is standard in Ontario, and the Grand Secretary's information is that the question of Ritual is not known ever to have been an issue. Transcript of a ritual found in a surveyor's notebook is said to have been similar to the working of the three degrees exemplified by R.W. Bro. William Badgley, Provincial Grand Master of Montreal and William Henry, to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Canada West in June 1851. The first Grand Master, William Mercer Wilson, is said to have favored a diversity of workings. The only known exception, however, to uniformity of ritual in Ontario is found in two London Lodges with Irish antecedents, which have permission to practice the Irish working.


The earliest Manitoba Lodges had their origin either in Ontario or Minnesota, the first warrant coming from the latter in 1863. Prince Rupert's Lodge, No. 240 (Canada) was formed in 1870, all the charter members being British soldiers of the Wolseley expedition at Fort Garry. The Grand Lodge of Manitoba dates from 1875, and its story is told in the history printed for the Golden Jubilee, Freemasonry in Manitoba, by William Douglas, P.G.M., for a copy of which I am indebted to the Grand Secretary.

Ritual in Manitoba was a source of much contention during the first decade of the Grand Lodge, and a major factor in a schism in 1878; this is outlined both by M. W. Bro. Douglas in his history and by Bro. D. M. Silverberg in Association Paper No. 96. The issue was between those who preferred the "The Canadian", as the Emulation ritual from Ontario came to be called, and those who favored the "Ancient York" (American) working. Agreement was reached finally in 1880, and both workings were approved. Of the three oldest Lodges, two began with the "Canadian" and one with the "Ancient York" working, and they still continue to do so.

An interesting sidelight is given by M. W. Dwight L. Smith, of Indiana, in his Goodly Heritage, wherein he mentions the similarity in workings in Indiana, Vermont, Minnesota, and the "American Work" Lodges of Manitoba. He traces the influence of John Barney, which still lingers in certain Quebec Lodges, through mid-western States where. after leaving Vermont, he gave instruction in the Webb lectures

The Douglas history indicates that adherence to the English practice of transacting business in the E.A. degree by the Lodges under Canadian jurisdiction was a cause of divided opinion. In 1885 the Board of General Purposes ruled that all Lodges must conduct business in the M.M. degree, but Lodges may now decide to do so in the E.A. degree, should they so wish. use of the M.M. degree for this purpose stems from a Masonic convention at Washington, D.C. in 1842, which recommended that "the practice of transacting Masonic business in Lodges below the degree of Master Mason … should be discontinued.

Some Manitoba changes in practice are noted:

  1. Holding of Signs discarded in opening and closing ceremonies.
  2. Substitution in reference to the Flag in final E.A. Charge to "Let me remind you of the duties you owe to Queen and Country and the rights and privileges secured to us as Citizens of Canada." (Not in Canadian work.)
  3. Use of long form of W.T. in F.C. degree. (Ontario has long form).
  4. Amendment of the Penalties.


The influence of the Grand Lodge of Canada (Ontario) continued to spread further westward to the area which became the Province of Saskatchewan in 1905. The oldest Lodge is Kinistino, which received its Warrant from the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1879, with the number 381. It joined the Grand Lodge of Manitoba in 1881 as No. 16, and in 1906, as the oldest Lodge in the new Province, it was requested to call a Convention to discuss the formation of a new Grand Lodge. That accomplished, Kinistino became No. 1 on the roll. Association Paper No. 36, by M. W. Bro. R. A. Tate, tells of expansion in Lodges and members. There were twenty-nine Lodges at work in 1906, of which all but two used the "Canadian" ritual; these two held to the "Ancient York" (American) working. Today there is said to be uniformity in ritual except for the two which continue to work "Ancient York".


The Grand Lodge of Alberta was formed in the same year that Alberta became a Province, 1905. Association Paper No. 29, by M. W. Bro. Sam Harris, gives a brief history to 1955. There were eighteen Lodges at the outset, sixteen chartered and two under dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. Of these, twelve are said to have used the "Ancient York" ritual and the others the "Canadian" working. The Grand Secretary's information is that the "Ancient York" came with Masons from Nova Scotia, and that the Grand Lodge Constitution was based on that of Manitoba, which permitted the Lodges a choice of the two workings.

Examination of copies of the Rituals in use, which R. W. Bro. Rivers kindly sent to the writer, reveal interesting differences. "Canadian" Work, printed in 1945 was compared with "Ancient York" published in 1910 and that used by Edmonton Lodge No. 7. Differing passages are displayed in the V.S.L., and business is done in the M.M. degree. There is resemblance in the latter two to the working by the two Irish Lodges in Ontario.

To quote Bro. Harris, "There are two authorized "Rites" or "Workings" in Alberta, the Canadian Rite, about 60% and the York, or American Rite, about 40%".


The Grand Lodge of British Columbia was formed in 1871 by eight Lodges holding charters from the United Grand Lodge of England and five Lodges from the Grand Lodge of Scotland; these founder-Lodges were permitted to practise the workings which they had been using the Emulation and the Scottish rituals. With expansion, other workings were introduced, and for many years there was considerable discussion about the variety of workings and, no doubt also, about the variations from correct ritual.

"Cariboo Gold", the history of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, (Paper No. 88. by V. W. Bro. J. T. Marshall), shows that in 1867 the Grand Lodge of Scotland granted a Warrant, No. 469. Most of the founder-members came from the U.S.A., and the Lodge leaned to American practice; the Scottish Grand Lodge was tolerant in the matter of ritual so long as the Ancient Landmarks were observed.

In the 1950 Proceedings of Grand Lodge there is a lengthy report of a Special Committee on Rituals, and it lists four main types of ritual and ceremonial used in the jurisdiction:

Canadian (Ontario) type: 59 Lodges

English type: 11 Lodges

New South Wales type: 1 Lodge

American type: 58 Lodges

Total: 129

The report is almost a treatise on rituals, and one of the points emphasized is that

Several Lodges doing American work make use of Lester's 'Look to the East' a book of no standing in the U.S.A. and roundly condemned by some Freemasons. We have been unable to find out who Lester was, whether he was a Freemason at all, and what jurisdiction practises the work he prints. However, like all 'spurious' rituals, the book contains many genuine elements, especially those culled from Monitors.

This is quoted in full because Lester was mentioned in P.E.I. A revised copy in the writer's possession shows that it was copyrighted in 1876 and 1904 by Dick & Fitzgerald, again in 1918 and 1927, and published by the Behrens Publishing Company, Danbury, Connecticut.

In 1955 the Grand Lodge authorized a Ritual entitled "The Canadian Working", and in 1962 a form of work called "The Ancient Ritual" was adopted for use by the Lodges practising the American Rite, its use being voluntary for Lodges existing before June 1, 1962. This ritual has some interesting features. There are ten appendices, covering details from alternate rituals which can be used in degree work, one details the various emblems of the M.M. degree, such as the Pot of Incense, the Beehive, the Anchor and Ark, and the Hourglass. There is also a list of words used in the Ritual, giving the correct phonetic pronunciation


Review shows that at the beginnings of Freemasonry in what is now Canada the rituals came from the Irish or early English Lodges and, in some cases, via the American Colonies or States. In time, Emulation was introduced and, in the guise of "Canadian" spread across the country. The Ancient York work was practised in the Maritime Provinces, but it is also known in Quebec and West from Manitoba. Two Lodges in Ontario have the Irish working and three in Quebec the Scottish. Excluding the Maritimes, which are Ancient York territory, the Emulation based Canadian working predominates, with the exceptions noted.

As a result of undertaking the foregoing paper, the writer is now in possession of a member of rituals, histories, and other documents which have been of invaluable assistance in its preparation, and he takes this opportunity to thank the several Grand Secretaries, representatives of the Canadian Masonic Research Association, and others, for their cooperation. Recognition is made of material added by Brethren with personal acquaintance of Quebec and Maritime Provinces Masonry and of a contribution by Wor. Bro. George W. Baldwin of British Columbia. which came after the paper was written. This has been added as an Appendix.



In British Columbia, there are now four recognized rituals, known as English (or Emulation), American (or Antient), Canadian and Australian. Their adoption in this Province reflects the forces that went into the creation of this part of the country

The first lodge was Victoria Lodge, No. 1085, E.R., chartered by the United Grand Lodge of England, at Victoria, V.I., in 1860, and, of course, following the Emulation work.

The next lodge as Union Lodge, No. 1201, E.R., formed at New Westminster, then the capital of the mainland colony of British Columbia in 1862. It began with the Emulation working, but in 1877, the lodge unanimously resolved "to adopt the 'Scotch work'". By this was meant what has been more commonly and properly known as the American or Antient ritual. In some other provinces, it is erroneously called the "York rite."

Many of the newcomers to the colonies of Vancouver's Island and British Columbia at this time came north from California. They found the Masonic working of the two English lodges strange and unfamiliar. Consequently, they decided to form a lodge of their own in Victoria, and drew up a petition to the Grand Lodge of Washington Territory. This brought an immediate reaction from Victoria Lodge, which passed a resolution to the effect that only a British Grand Lodge could issue a warrant for a masonic lodge in British territory. Naturally, they equated the word "British" with "English."

The applicants were at a loss as to what to do, other than to withdraw their petition to the Grand Lodge of Washington Territory. At this point, Dr. Israel Wood Powell, a Canadian from Montreal, and a member of a Scottish lodge there, recommended that the Americans apply to the Grand Lodge of Scotland for a warrant. At that time, the Grand Lodge of Scotland had not adopted a standard ritual, and any lodge could adopt any recognized form of ritual which its members preferred so long as it was not inconsistent with the principles of Freemasonry. Furthermore, a Scottish charter would be a charter from a British Grand Lodge, and thus the English brethren would have no basis of complaint. As a result of this advice, Vancouver Lodge, No. 421 S.C., was formed in Victoria, V.I., late in 1862.

After the formation of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia in 1871, the question of uniformity of ritual arose from time to time, but no one could agree upon which ritual the others would conform to. and nothing was ever done.

Following the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the first lodges constituted by this Grand Lodge were formed at Kamloops and at Donald in 1886, and at Vancouver in 1888. Kamloops Lodge, No. 10, B.C.R., followed an Oxford ritual, but is now listed in all tables and reports as using the English work. Mountain Lodge, No. 11, B.C.R., at Donald, and Cascade Lodge, No. 1S, B.C.R., at Vancouver, introduced the Canadian ritual, that is, a ritual from "Canada." This was the work that had been adopted about 1868 by the Grand Lodge of Canada.

The final ritual brought in to British Columbia, came with the formation of Lodge Southern Cross, No. 44, B.C.R., in 1906. This work was in fact the ritual adopted in New South Wales when a Grand Lodge was formed there. At that time, a committee took what' it thought was the best of the English, Scottish and Irish rituals then used there, and formed what has been termed "an impressive and erudite ritual.

The founders of this lodge were principally Australians, many of whom had ended up in Vancouver after participating in the gold rush to the Klondyke. The reasons behind the granting of permission to them to use this ritual were in many respects similar to those which motivated the formation of the first American lodge, with a Scottish charter, in Victoria about 40 years earlier.

In later years, committees of Grand Lodge have standardized both the Canadian and the American rituals, and made them voluntary for existing lodges, and compulsory for newly-formed lodges choosing either of these rituals. British Columbia Freemasons today generally accept their variety of rituals, and feel that the Craft in this Province is richer as a result. No mention is ever made now of one uniform ritual.


George J. Bennett, compiled for John Ross Robertson, in A Concise History of Freemasonry in Canada. Hamilton. Osborne Sheppard. 1930.

Canadian Masonic Research Association, Papers 29, 32, 36, 88, 93, 96.

William Douglas. Freemasonry in Manitoba 1864-1925. Winnipeg. 1925.

Herbert T. Leyland. Thomas Smith Webb. Ohio. R.A.M. 1965.

Longley and Harris. A Short History of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia. Halifax. 1966.

A. J. B. Milborne. Freemasonry in the Province of Quebec, 1759-1959. 1960

Grand Lodge Proceedings.

Dwight L. Smith. Goodly Heritage. G.L. Indiana. 1968.

Geo. W. Baldwin, P.M., Nechako Lodge, Prince George, B.C.