A Journal for the Masonic Student

Published Monthly by the National Masonic Research Society


Vol. 7 No. 1 – January 1921



Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M., District of Columbia


HENRY CLAY, by far the superior of the men of his time, had three advantages: First, that he was poor born, the son of a Baptist clergyman; Second, that he was at an early age obliged to "hustle," and thus to acquire the habit of industry; and Third, opportunity. Success in life is largely dependent upon opportunity, or luck, as it is sometimes called.

When a child of eight years, the writer first saw Henry Clay. My father said to me: "Do you see that tall man talking to Mr. Frank Taylor? That is Henry Clay, the greatest living American. He is now an old man. He cannot live long. Look at him well, for the Nation will never produce his equal."

Henry Clay used more words in his oratory than any man then living. He was fearless, honest of purpose, and earnest.

In 1852 as his funeral cortege was passing down the avenue, a Negro was leaning against a tree in front of Frank Taylor's book store, singing. I caught the refrain only:

"Oh! Poor Henry Clay,
In the dust you must lay."

The Negroes loved Clay. He had endeavored to have incorporated in the Kentucky Constitution a clause looking to the gradual emancipation of slaves. It is not generally known, but when the Civil War began there were in existence in the United States twenty-six emancipation societies, thirteen of which were south of the Mason and Dixon line. Washington had freed his slaves, and Henry Clay tried to free many. He was always called Henry Clay, just as today Mr. Watterson is called Henry, contrary to the habit of their peers.

Henry Clay was a fifth son, and was compelled at an early age to contribute to the support of a widowed mother. His early education was limited, but what he learned he never forgot. His family removed to Kentucky but he remained in Richmond as a clerk, finally gaining admission into the office of the Clerk of the Chancery Court where he took up the study of law. After being admitted to the Bar, he went to Kentucky to reside. His frankness, cordiality and sunny disposition won him many friends. Clay began to take a part in public affairs and, in 1799 (the year of Washington's death), he advocated the gradual abolition of slavery. Had his advice been accepted the Civil War never would have occurred.

Like Washington, Clay saw the great-advantages in better transportation. Washington's scheme for a canal connecting the Potomac and the Ohio rivers was not greater than Clay's proposed canal around the falls at Louisville. His schemes were in the interest of the commonwealth, not the individual.

Clay served in the legislature, in the Nation's Congress and Senate. He was in nomination for the Presidency but was defeated by the less-known candidate, Frelinghuysen.

Brother Clay was a man of temperate habits, but not a "teetotaler." He, together with many other Senators, on their way from the Senate to their homes, frequently stopped in at "Hancock's" for their libations, and their stories were absorbed and remembered by Mr. Hancock, who lived to an old age and who delighted to repeat the bon mots of Clay, Webster, Calhoun, Benton and others.

The story of Clay's duel with John Randolph, of Roanoke, is interesting. Mr. Randolph was very eccentric, a powerful speaker, honorable and unselfish, but very uncertain. He was odd in his dress, many of his expressions were ambiguous and uncertain. He had said he would rather meet death by a bullet from Clay's revolver, than in any other manner. As he and Clay were working in the same interests, generally on the same side, one in the House and the other in the Senate, there was little likelihood of a quarrel. But it came.

They fought with pistols, near Bladensburg. Both were good shots. Clay had attacked Randolph in a speech, but all sympathy was with Clay. Clay sent a bullet through Randolph's coat, which barely grazed the skin, while Randolph dramatically fired his pistol into the air.

"Henry Clay, you owe me a new coat," said the eccentric Congressman, advancing with extended hands, to which Clay replied, "Thank God, Mr. Randolph, I do not owe you more."

Clay was one of the first advocates of a protective tariff. He fathered the Bill which enabled Louisiana to form its State government. He opposed the first United States bank. While Speaker of the House he constituted the committee with reference to declaration of war. He advocated a strong army (25,000 men), and urged the construction of ten additional frigates. He denounced the Federal Party, in opposition to Josiah Quincy's speeches, and eulogized Jefferson.

When Missouri was admitted into the Union, the question of slavery was very acute. Mr. Clay vehemently opposed any restrictions in the proposed Constitution of that State as to slavery, but as Speaker of the House, arranged a joint committee which produced the famous "Missouri Compromise" and thus smothered the vexed slavery question for the time being. Clay had confidence that slavery would gradually be eliminated.

The records of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia for the year 1821 show a Masonic notice reading:

"Those members of Congress who belong to the Masonic Fraternity, and those visitors in the city who are or have been members of any Grand Lodge, are respectfully invited to attend a meeting, to be held in the Senate Chamber this evening at seven o'clock to take into consideration matters of general interest to the Masonic Institution. March 9th, 1822."

This is the only instance we have ever found where the Senate Chamber has been used by the Fraternity and, on this occasion, it was by the influence of Henry Clay.

Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson stood pat on the Masonic threshold during the Morgan excitement, when politicians were engaged in throwing so much mud on our Order. The equal of that assault is unknown, but it is certain that whole lodges got "cold feet" and surrendered their charters; Masons were boycotted in their businesses, and the daughters of Masons were ostracized. But Clay remained loyal to the Fraternity. And after all we have the testimony of Ben Perly Poore that he (then a boy) with his father saw and talked with Morgan in Smyrna, in 1839. So the judgment on Henry Clay was correct in that matter.

Henry Clay was born in Virginia in 1777, and died at Washington in 1852. His body was taken to Lexington, Kentucky, where the memorial shown in the frontispiece, was erected.

Clay was Grand Master of Masons in Kentucky in 1820. He was always interested in Masonry, and was often quoted as saying that in Masonry he could find at any time men who could be trusted to the limit. The writer has heard Theodore Roosevelt say the same thing.

It was the custom of Clay, and indeed, of many Congressman, to return to their homes on horse-back at the end of a session of Congress. The writer, in 1887, drove in a buggy from Washington to the Natural Bridge, and found a "tavern" about every fifteen miles. It was the custom to drive about thirty miles a day with a good horse; we put up at each alternate tavern and, after supper, it was not difficult to get Clay stories from the elder natives. Returning by another route, we found Clay, Randolph and other great men to be well known at these taverns. Clay was a good "mixer," and these "oldest inhabitants" were agreed that Henry Clay never forgot a man or a child; that he would at once call each by his name. In social circles, here in Washington, Clay had the reputation of being very witty, and clever at repartee, but never once have we heard of an improper remark being attributed to him.

* * *

We are proud to know that Washington, the father of his country, was a prominent Mason, that his life work demonstrated to all his conscientious interpretation of Masonic teachings and of Masonic lessons. We as Masons, however, cannot live upon the past — the future lies before us. A greater work is in store for us if we conscientiously measure up to our duties than anything the past has presented. Shall we measure up? We earnestly hope and pray that we may. If we go forth from our lodges, old members as well as new, thoroughly imbued with the beautiful lessons of Freemasonry, convinced of the truth of the teachings, impressed with the desire to emulate and surpass the record of the past, we shall be empowered by our united strength to enable our country safely to ride over the many difficulties, dangers and pitfalls that lie before us. Masonry teaches loyalty and fealty to flag and country. We shall, we must, have Americanism in every sense of the word, for Americanism represents the teachings of Masonry as laid out by our wise forefathers. Unless we, as a united, determined and faithful band set our faces firmly against disloyalty, anarchy, bolshevism, or whatever the term applied to the foreign growth whose seed is unfortunately being sown in this country may be, a dismal, dark, discouraging future lies before us. Let us therefore bend our every endeavor so that our newly welcomed brethren may truly and completely understand the noble import and purposes of Freemasonry.

— Charles C. Homer, Past Grand Master, Maryland.

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Bro. Hoke Smith, Georgia

The Smith-Towner Educational Bill, the text of which is incorporated in the following speech of Senator Hoke Smith, of Georgia, delivered in the United States Senate on July 28, 1919, will come up for consideration during the present session of Congress. A Jesuit writer in the November issue of "America," a Roman Catholic weekly, solicits every Roman Catholic to "at once urge the danger of the Smith-Towner bill upon the Senators from his State and his Representative in the House."

The men who suggested this bill were active workers in different Christian denominations, earnestly seeking to serve their fellow men, their country, and their God.

The only discordant note has come from certain Catholic organizations, based, I must believe, upon a misapprehension of the bills.

Taxes paid for the support of public schools are the highest contribution made by wealth for the welfare of our citizens and for the future of our country.

These attacks might have been expected of leaders of thought in the dark ages; at the present time they are surprising and shocking.

I can not believe that the real leaders of the Catholic Church or the rank and file of its members in the United States are opposed to public schools or to an opportunity being given to every child of obtaining an education at the public expense.

Hoke Smith,
Democratic Senator from Georgia.

* * *

MR. SMITH of Georgia. Mr. President, about two years ago a committee of educators, composed of presidents of leading colleges and men prominent in educational work throughout the United States, conferred with me as to the importance of establishing a department of education, with a member of the Cabinet at its head. These men were active workers in different Christian religious denominations, earnestly seeking to serve their fellow men, their country, and their God, by broadening educational opportunities for our children and citizens.

As nothing concerns more our national life than the education of our citizens, it needed little argument to enlist my active interest in the proposed measure.

After free discussion a committee was appointed to draft a tentative bill. The bill was worked over a number of times and finally, about 12 months ago, I introduced a bill providing for the creation of a Department of Education, with a secretary in the President's Cabinet, and copies of the bill were sent to those interested in the subject in various parts of the United States for further criticism and suggestion. Modifications were made in the bill and it was again introduced during the last Congress changed somewhat in details. It has been, since that time, reviewed and criticized by committees from various organizations.

The bill introduced in the House by Judge Towner, H. R. 7, and by myself in the Senate, S. 1017, still contains much of the bill which was pending at the last session of Congress, but changes which seemed to improve the original bill have been made.

The National Education Association has a membership of 35,000. It was organized in 1857, and many of our ablest college presidents and educators have presided over its meetings. Committees of this organization aided in the revision of the bill, and at the July meeting of the association the bill received the cordial approval of its members.

I request to print, without reading, the resolution passed by the National Education Association.

The President pro tempore. Without objection, is so ordered.

The resolutions referred to are as follows:


Resolution adopted by National Education Association, Milwaukee meeting, July, 1919:

This association has urged for years that education should be given just recognition by the Federal Government, and that a department of education should be established. The war has so emphasized the importance of education from a national standpoint that the necessity of the immediate consideration of this question is universally recognized.

Moreover, a commission on the emergency in education, appointed by this association one year ago, acting under the instruction of the association, prepared a bill creating a department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet, and authorizing the appropriation of $100,000,000 to encourage the States in the promotion of education, particularly in the removal of illiteracy, the Americanization of immigrants, physical and health education, teacher preparation, and the equalizing of educational opportunities, and

This association, through its commission, and with the cooperation of other great national organizations, secured the introduction of this bill in the Sixty-fifth Congress, and more recently its introduction in the Sixty-sixth Congress in a carefully revised and perfected form, known as the Smith-Towner bill, H. R. 7 and S. 1017: Therefore

Resolved, That this association gives its hearty and unqualified endorsement to the Smith-Towner bill, H. R. 7 and S. 1017, now before the Sixty-sixth Congress, and instructs the official staff of this association to use all honorable means to secure its passage.

Mr. Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, the American Federation of Labor and the American Federation of Teachers have given the measure a hearty endorsement.

I request to print, without reading, their resolutions.

The President pro tempore. If there is no objection, it is so ordered.

The resolutions referred to are as follows:

Resolution No. 123, by Delegate Charles B. Stillman, of the American Federation of Teachers.

Whereas in accordance with the instructions of the last convention, the executive council of the American Federation of Labor, working with the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association, has cooperated in the preparation and introduction of the educational bill, H. R. 7, which creates a Federal department of education and appropriates $100,000,000 to be apportioned among the States to aid in the payment of more adequate teachers' salaries, in the equalization of educational opportunities, in the removal of illiteracy, in Americanization of immigrants, in physical education, and in the preparation of competent teachers; and

Whereas the present period of reconstruction is revealing even more clearly than the preceding period of the war the need for a national educational policy to secure coordination among the States, and to promote national welfare, efficiency, and unity; and

Whereas the threatened collapse of our schools, which influenced the action of the last convention, is still more imminent now, through the forcing out of our best teachers by the thousands by sheer economic pressure, and through the refusal of young men and women of ability and independent spirit to prepare themselves for a calling which does not offer a self-respecting living; and

Whereas the ultimate national need is for educated manhood and womanhood, a need which will become more urgent in the period we are entering; and

Whereas the recent past has forced upon us a realization of the necessity of more effective physical education, of the removal of illiteracy, and of the Americanization of immigrants; and

Whereas in the fields of vocational and agricultural education, the value of the stimulus to the States of Federal appropriations available to a State on its meeting specified standards, and on the appropriation by that State of equal amounts, has been proved by experience; therefore, be it

Resolved, That this thirty-ninth convention of the American Federation of Labor, in conformity with the recommendation of the preceding convention, indorse the educational bill, H. R. 7, and instruct the president and executive council to use the full influence of the American Federation of Labor in its support.


Many other organizations, including school boards and chambers of commerce, have indorsed the measure. Indeed, so far as I know, the only discordant note of opposition has come from certain Catholic organizations, based, I must believe, upon a misapprehension of the bills.

In the Morning Star, printed in New Orleans, on May 31, I find the statement that the Federation of Catholic Societies condemn the Smith-Towner educational bill as un-American and un-Christian, and certain resolutions were reported as adopted which I request to have printed without reading them.

The President pro tempore. Without objection, it is so ordered.

The matter referred to is as follows:

Rev. M. Kenny, S. J., read this section of the report of the Committee on Education:

"Whereas Catholic education, and particularly our parochial school system, are indispensable nurseries of religion and of the virtues essential to true civic character and to the maintenance of Christian civilization; and

"Whereas the Constitution of the Nation and of the States guarantees religious liberty to every citizen and strictly defines the authoritative boundaries of State and Federal power; and

"Whereas certain legislative measures now introduced in Congress and various legislatures aim, directly and indirectly, to weaken, emasculate and destroy religious schools and educational individuality, and to subject all schools, in finance and curriculum, to a centralized bureau of political nationalization in Washington, thus robbing State and family and individual of their God-given rights: Therefore be it

"Resolved, That we, the representatives of the Catholic Federated Societies of Louisiana, are unanimously opposed to such measures as both un-American and unchristian, and earnestly urge our people to support our Christian schools with increased unanimity and loyalty, and to combine with all Christian and patriotic citizens in opposing, by voice and pen and vote and every constitutional instrument, the advocacy, adoption, and advocates of those subversive and destructive educational schemes, thus erecting an impregnable barrier against this sinister menace to religion and Constitution, to family and Nation; be it further

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be forwarded to the President and Cabinet of the United States, to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the Louse, and to our State and National Representatives."

Mr. Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, the Morning Star on the same date commended the "magnificent stand which the Federation of Catholic Societies has made against the Smith educational bill which is to be re-introduced into Congress under the name of the Smith-Towner bill."

The Star of the same issue quoted from a paper called "America," declaring that the Smith bill was for the Prussianization of the public schools and that the Smith-Bankhead bill, for the Americanization of illiterates, was a scheme scarcely less dangerous.

On July 1, 1909, at Peru, Ill., the National Benedictine Educational Association of America adopted a platform of educational reconstruction condemning the Smith-Towner bill. I request that it be printed in the Record.

The President pro tempore. If there is no objection, it is so ordered.

The matter referred to is as follows:


July 1, 1919.

Assembled at a time when the war-worn peoples of the globe watch with anxiety the threatening triumph of might over right, of tyranny over democracy, of international chaos over organized government, The National Benedictine Educational Association of America, convened in St. Bede College, Peru, Ill., and representing independent institutions in the States of Oregon, Washington, Minnesota, Illinois, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Kansas Arkansas, Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida, hereby proclaims its solemn conviction that education is the bulwark of freedom, and invites the universal cooperation of serious-minded American citizens upon the platform of educational reconstruction that here follows:

  1. Federal cooperation with our free and self-controlled educational activities we recognize and welcome as an ally of educational freedom. Federal domination we condemn as educational tyranny.
  2. The spirit of liberty, the fountainhead of our national Constitution, serves to condemn any governmental agency that tends to disregard or abolish the God-given right of each and every American father to create and control for his child a school which satisfies the dictates of his conscience.
  3. Power to create and control the school depends on the power to control the man that creates the school.
  4. Consequently, Federalization of all school moneys, the essential feature of the Smith-Towner bill, is the death knell of educational freedom.
  5. Consequently, the voters of America will employ all legitimate agencies, and the final sanction of the ballot box, against a measure subversive of the educational freedom guaranteed to our families and our States by a Constitution that has lately been rewritten in the life-blood of their sons and brothers. Shall the educational tyranny of Bismarck, after devouring with cynical smile the flower of American manhood, ride with our returning armies across the Atlantic to complete in Washington what it began in Berlin?

Mr. Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, I trust these attacks upon the bills to create a Department of Education have been due to a lack of knowledge of the real provisions of the bills on the part of those who made them. I can not believe that these attacks represent the mature views of any considerable number of our citizens. Rather, I believe, they have been inspired by addresses such as that recently delivered by Rev. E. D. L. McDonnell, S. J., of Loyola College, Baltimore, Md. The address to which I refer was reported in the Washington Post on the 16th day of June. I send to the desk of the Secretary of the Senate some extracts from that report, which I ask to have read.

The President pro tempore. The Secretary will read as requested.

The Secretary read as follows:

(From The Washington Post. June 16, 1919.)


A bitter attack upon Senator Hoke Smith's educational bill and similar measures pending in Congress creating a Department of Education was made yesterday by the Rev E. De L. McDonnell, S. J., of Loyola College, Baltimore, Md., in a baccalaureate sermon delivered before the graduating classes of Georgetown University.

* * *


Dr. McDonnell referred to the proposed legislation as "designed to place the whole educational machinery of the country under the control of one autocratic overseer here in Washington," and described it as "the most dangerous and viciously audacious bill ever introduced into our halls of legislation, having lurking within it a most damnable plot to drive Jesus Christ out of the land."

* * *

Dr. McDonnell continued:

"And now, last of all, but by no means least of all, our freedom is still further threatened, and still greater power is to be given to the Central Government, and State rights are still further to be weakened by a bill in Congress, the Hoke Smith educational bill, by which the whole educational machinery of the country is to be placed under the control of one autocratic overseer here in Washington.

* * *

"But there is another aspect of this bill which, for us Catholics and for every right-thinking American, must seem much more serious, for whilst the bill does nothing ostensibly against religion, in effect it aims at banishing God from every schoolroom, whether public or private, in the United States.

* * *

"This bill destroys all freedom of education, takes away the sacrosanct duty and right of parents to educate their own children and the right of the children to be so educated. It is a direct assault upon religion and it penalizes Jesus Christ, His faith and all who believe.

Mr. Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, this address embodies three distinct charges against the pending bills to create a department of education.

First. That the whole educational machinery of the country is to be placed under the control of one autocratic overseer here in Washington.

Second. That the bill takes away the duty and right of parents to educate their own children and the right of the children to be so educated.

Third. That the bill would banish God from every schoolroom and is a direct assault upon religion.

Each of these charges is so utterly false that it is difficult to understand how anyone could have been willing to make them. It is especially difficult to understand how a preacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ could have been their author.

I request now to have printed in the Record, without reading, Senate bill 1017, which is almost identical with House bill No. 7, introduced by Congressman Towner.

The President pro tempore. If there is no objection, the request is granted.

The matter referred to is as follows:



May 28, 1919

Mr. Smith of Georgia introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Education and Labor.

A bill to create a Department of Education, to authorize appropriations for the conduct of said department, to authorize the appropriation of money to encourage the States in the promotion and support of education, and for other Purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there is hereby created an executive department in the Government to be called the Department of Education, with a Secretary of Education, who shall be the head thereof, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who shall receive a salary of $12,000 per annum, and whose tenure of office shall be the same as that of the heads of other executive departments; and section 158 of the Revised Statutes is hereby amended to include such department, and the provisions of title 4 of the Revised Statutes, including all amendments thereto, are hereby made applicable to said department. The Secretary of Education shall cause a seal of office to be made for such department of such device as the President shall approve, and judicial notice shall be taken of said seal.

Sec. 2. That there shall be in said department an Assistant Secretary of Education, to be appointed by the President, who shall receive a salary of $5,000 per annum. He shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the secretary or required by law. There shall also be one chief clerk and a disbursing clerk and such chiefs of bureaus and clerical assistants as may from time to time be authorized by Congress.

Sec. 3. That there is hereby transferred to the Department of Education, the Bureau of Education, and the President is authorized and empowered, in his discretion, to transfer to the Department of Education such offices, bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the Government devoted to educational matters and connected with or attached to any of the executive departments or organized independently of any department as in his judgment should be controlled by, or the functions of which should be exercised by, the Department of Education; and all such offices, bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the Government so transferred by the President or by act of Congress, shall thereafter be administered by the Department of Education, as hereinafter provided.

All officers, clerks, and employees employed in or by any office, bureau, division, board, or branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education, shall each and all be transferred to said Department of Education at their existing grades and salaries, except where otherwise provided in this act; and the office records and papers on file and pertaining exclusively to the business of any such office, bureau, division, board, or branch of the Government so transferred, together with the furniture and equipment thereof, shall be transferred to said department.

Sec. 4. That the Secretary of Education shall have charge, in the buildings or premises occupied by or assigned to the Department of Education, of the library, furniture, fixtures, records, and other property used therein or pertaining thereto, and may expend for rental of appropriate quarters for the accommodation of the Department of Education within the District of Columbia, and for the library, furniture, equipment, and all other incidental expenses, such sums as Congress may provide from time to time.

All power and authority conferred by law upon or exercised by the head of any executive department, or by any administrative board, over any officer, office, bureau, division, board, or branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education, and any and all business arising therefrom or pertaining thereto, and all duties performed in connection therewith, shall, after such transfer, be vested in and exercised by the Secretary of Education.

All laws prescribing the work and defining the duties and powers of the several offices, bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education, shall, in so far as the same are not in conflict with the provisions of this act, remain in full force and effect and be executed under the direction of the Secretary of Education, to whom is hereby granted definite authority to reorganize the work of any and all of the said offices, bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the Government so transferred, in such way as will in his judgment best accomplish the purposes of this act.


In order to carry out the provisions of this section the Secretary of Education is authorized, in the same manner as provided for appointments in other departments, to make appointments, or recommendations of appointments of educational attaches to foreign embassies, and of such investigators and representatives as may be needed, subject to the appropriations that have been made or may hereafter be made to any office, bureau, division, board or branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education; and where appropriations have not been made therefor the appropriation provided in section 6 of this act shall be available.

Sec. 6. That for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, and annually thereafter, the sum of $500,000 is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to the Department of Education, for the purpose of paying salaries and conducting investigations and paying all incidental and traveling expenses and rent where necessary, and for the purpose of enabling the Department of Education to carry out the provisions of this act. And all appropriations which have been made and which may hereafter be made to any office, bureau, division, board or branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education, are hereby continued in full force and effect, and shall be administered by the Secretary of Education in such manner as is prescribed by law.

Sec. 7. That in order to encourage the States in the promotion and support of education, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, and annually thereafter, $100,000,000, to be apportioned, disbursed, and expended as hereinafter provided.

Sec. 8. That in order to encourage the States to remove illiteracy, three-fortieths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used for the instruction of illiterates ten years of age and over. Such instruction shall deal with the common-school branches and the duties of citizenship, and when advisable shall prepare for some definite occupation. Said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions which their respective illiterate populations of ten years of age and over, not including foreign-born illiterates, bear to such total illiterate population of the United States, not including outlying possessions, according to the last preceding census of the United States.

Sec. 9. That in order to encourage the States in the Americanization of immigrants, three-fortieths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used to teach immigrants ten years of age and over to speak and read the English language and to understand and appreciate the spirit and purpose of the American Government and the duties of citizenship in a free country. The said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions which their respective foreign-born populations bear to the total foreign-born population of the United States, not including outlying possessions, according to the last preceding census of the United States.

Sec. 10. That in order to encourage the States to improve educational opportunities, five-tenths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used in public elementary and secondary schools for the partial payment of teachers' salaries, for providing better instruction and extending school terms, especially in rural schools and schools in sparsely settled localities, and otherwise providing equally good educational opportunities fox the children in the several States, and for the extension and adaptation of public libraries for educational purposes. The said sum shall be apportioned to the States, one-half in the proportions which the number of children between the ages of six and twenty-one of the respective States bear to the total number of such children in the United States, and one half in the proportions which the number of public-school teachers employed in teaching positions in the respective States bear to the total number of public-school teachers as employed in the United States, not including outlying possessions, said apportionment to be based upon statistics collected annually by the Department of Education.

Provided, however, That in order to share in the apportionment provided by this section a State shall establish and maintain the following requirements unless prevented b constitutional limitations, in which case these requirement shall be approximated as nearly as constitutional provision will permit: (A) A LEGAL SCHOOL TERM OF AT LEAST 24 WEEKS IN EACH YEAR FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE IN SUCH STATE (B) A COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE LAW REQUIRING ALL CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF SEVEN AND FOURTEEN TO ATTEND SOME SCHOOL FOR AT LEAST 24 WEEKS IN EACH YEAR (C) A LAW REQUIRING THAT THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SHALL BE THE BASIC LANGUAGE OF SMITH-TOWNER EDUCATIONAL BILL INSTRUCTION IN THE COMMON-SCHOOL BRANCHES IN ALL SCHOOLS, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE.

Sec. 11. That in order to encourage the States in the promotion of physical education, two-tenths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used for physical education and instruction in the principles of health and sanitation, and for providing school nurses, school dental clinics, and otherwise promoting physical and mental welfare. The said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions which their respective populations bear to the total population of the United States, not including outlying possessions, according to the last preceding census of the United States.

Sec. 12. That in order to encourage the States in the preparation of teachers for public-school service, particularly in rural schools, three-twentieths of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used to provide and extend facilities for the improvement of teachers already in service and for the more adequate preparation of prospective teachers, and to provide an increased number of trained and competent teachers by encouraging, through the establishment of scholarships and otherwise, a greater number of talented young people to make adequate preparation for public-school service. The said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the proportions which the number of public school teachers employed in teaching positions in the respective States bear to the total number of public-school teachers so employed in the United States, not including outlying possessions, said apportionments to be based on statistics collected annually by the Department of Education.

Sec. 13. That in order to secure the benefits of the appropriation authorized in section 7, and of any of the apportionments made in sections 8, 9,10, 11, and 12 of this act, a State shall by legislative enactment accept the provisions of this act and provide for the distribution of such funds as may be apportioned to said State, and shall designate the State's chief educational authority, whether a State superintendent of public instruction, a commissioner of education, a State board of education, or other legally constituted chief educational authority, to represent said State in the administration of this act, and such authority so designated shall be recognized by the Secretary of Education: Provided, That in any State in which the legislature does not meet in 1920, the governor of said State, in so far as he may have authority so to do, may take such action temporarily as is herein provided to be taken by legislative enactment in order to secure the benefits of this act, and such action by the governor shall be recognized by the Secretary of Education for the purposes of this act, when reported by the chief educational authority designated to represent said State, until the legislature of said State shall have met in due course and been in session 60 days.

In any State accepting the provisions of this act the State treasurer shall be designated and appointed as custodian of all funds received by said State as apportionments under the provisions of this act, to receive and provide for the proper custody and disbursement of the same, such disbursements to be made in accordance with the legal provisions of said State, on warrants duly drawn by the State's chief educational authority designated to represent said State in the administration of this act.

A State may accept the provisions of any one or more of the respective apportionments authorized in sections 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of this act, and may defer the acceptance of any one or more of said apportionments: Provided, however, That no money shall be apportioned to any State from any of the funds provided in sections 8, 9,10, 11, and 12 of this act unless a sum equally as large shall be provided by said State, or by local authorities, or by both, for the same purpose: And provided, That the sum or sums provided by a State for the improvement of educational opportunities, for the promotion of physical education, and for the preparation of teachers, shall not be less for any year than the amount provided for the same purpose for the fiscal year next preceding the acceptance of the provisions of this act by said State: And provided further, That no money apportioned to any State under the provisions of this act shall be used by any State or local authority, directly or indirectly, for the purchase, rental, erection, preservation, or repair of any building or equipment, or for the purchase or rental of land, or for the payment of debts or the interest thereon.

Sec. 14. That when a State shall have accepted the provisions of this act and shall have provided for the distribution and administration of such funds as may be apportioned to said State, as herein provided, the State's chief educational authority designated to represent said State shall so report in writing to the Secretary of Education. If such report shows that said State is prepared to carry out the provisions of this act with respect to any one or more of the apportionments authorized in sections 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of this act, the Secretary of Education shall apportion to said State for the fiscal year, or for the remainder of the fiscal year, as the case may be, such funds as said State may be entitled to receive under the provisions of this act, and shall certify such apportionment or apportionments to the Secretary of the Treasury: PROVIDED, THAT THIS ACT SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED TO REQUIRE UNIFORMITY OF PLANS, MEANS, OR METHODS IN THE SEVERAL STATES IN ORDER TO SECURE THE BENEFITS HEREIN PROVIDED, EXCEPT AS SPECIFICALLY STATED HEREIN: AND PROVIDED FURTHER, THAT ALL THE EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ENCOURAGED BY THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ACT AND ACCEPTED BY A STATE SHALL BE ORGANIZED, SUPERVISED, AND ADMINISTERED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE LEGALLY CONSTITUTED STATE AND LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITIES OF SAID STATE, AND THE SECRETARY OF EDUCATION SHALL EXERCISE NO AUTHORITY IN RELATION THERETO EXCEPT AS HEREIN PROVIDED TO INSURE THAT ALL FUNDS APPORTIONED TO SAID STATE SHALL BE USED FOR THE PURPOSES FOR WHICH THEY ARE APPROPRIATED, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ACT ACCEPTED BY SAID STATE.

Sec. 15. That the Secretary of Education is authorized to prescribe plans for keeping accounts of the expenditures of such funds as may be apportioned to the States under the provisions of this act, and to audit such accounts. The Secretary of Education may withhold the apportionment or apportionments of any State for the next ensuing fiscal year whenever he shall determine that such apportionment or apportionments made to said State for the current fiscal year are not being expended in accordance with the provisions of this act: Provided, however, That before withholding any such apportionment from any State, as herein provided, the Secretary of Education shall give due notice in writing to the chief educational authority designated to represent said State, stating specifically wherein said State fails to comply with the provisions of this act.

If any portion of the money received by the treasurer of a State under the provisions of this act for any of the purposes herein provided shall, by action or contingency, be diminished or lost, the same shall be replaced by said State, and until so replaced no subsequent apportionment for such purpose shall be paid to said State. If any part of the funds apportioned annually to any State for any of the purposes named in sections 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of this act has not been expended for such purpose, a sum equal to such unexpended part shall be deducted from the next succeeding annual apportionment made to said State for such purpose.

Sec. 16. That the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and directed to pay quarterly, on the 1st day of July, October, January, and April, to the treasury of any State designated to receive such funds, such apportionment or apportionments as are properly certified to him by the Secretary of Education. and he shall discontinue such payments when notified so to do by the Secretary of Education, as provided in this act.

Sec. 17. That the chief educational authority designated to represent any State receiving the benefits of this act shall, not later than September 1 of each year, make a report to the Secretary of Education showing the work done in said State in carrying out the provisions of this act, and the receipts and expenditures of money apportioned to said State under the provisions of this act. If the chief educational authority designated to represent any State shall fail to report as herein provided, the Secretary of Education shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury to discontinue the payment of all apportionments to said State until such report shall have been made.

Sec. 18. That the Secretary of Education shall annually at the close of each fiscal year make a report in writing to Congress giving an account of all moneys received and disbursed by the Department of Education, and describing the work done by the department. He shall also, not later than December 1 of each year, make a report to Congress on the administration of sections 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 of this act, and shall include in said report a summary of the reports made to him by the several States showing the condition of public education therein, and shall at the same time make such recommendations to Congress as will, in his judgment, improve public education in the United States. He shall also from time to time make such special investigations and reports as may be required of him by the President or by Congress.

Sec. 19. That this act shall take effect April 1, 1920, and all acts and parts of acts in conflict with this act are hereby repealed.

* * *


Mr. Smith of Georgia. Mr. President, no one can read the bill without observing that no autocratic overseer of education is created in Washington. It will also readily be seen that the bill in no way interferes with the right of a parent to place his child in a private school or religious denominational school if he sees fit to do so. The bill seeks to aid the States in fighting illiteracy, in teaching the English language to immigrants in strengthening the schools by adding to the pay of teachers, and by contributing toward the better preparation of teachers for their work. The charge that it banishes God from the schoolroom and that it is an assault upon religion will be tolerated only by one who opposes public education conducted by the State or local authorities, and who opposes all schools, except denominational and parochial schools. Let us consider the bill somewhat in detail. The first four paragraphs of the bill provide for the creation of a department of education, with a secretary of education who shall be a member of the President's Cabinet. They transfer the Bureau of Education to the Department of Education, and authorize the President to transfer from time to time, at his discretion, other national educational activities to the Department of Education. They give the secretary of education supervisory authority over the department of education. Section 5 requires the department to conduct studies and investigation in the field of education and that research be undertaken in illiteracy; immigrant education; public-school education, and especially rural education; physical education, including health education, recreation, and sanitation; and preparation and supply of competent teachers for public schools.

It will be seen that these provisions give the department in Washington no authority over the problems of education named, but require research in the interest of the schools of the entire country, that the information thus gathered may be furnished for the benefit of all States and all schools in the States.

Sections 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 provide for appropriations, a part for the instruction of illiterates; a part for the Americanization of immigrants; a part to be used in public elementary and secondary schools toward payment of teachers' salaries and for providing better instruction and extending school terms, especially in rural schools and schools in sparsely settled localities; a part for physical education and instruction in the principles of health and sanitation, and for providing school nurses and school dental clinics and otherwise promoting physical and mental welfare; a part for the preparation of teachers for public-school service, particularly in rural schools.

These funds, except the amount to be used to conduct the work of investigation by the department here in Washington, are to be distributed to the States, and used by the States and the educational authorities of the States.

So far from giving the department here control over the work in the respective States, it is specifically provided in section 14:

That this act shall not be construed to require uniformity of plans, means or methods in the several States in order to secure the benefits herein provided, and the use of the funds and all the educational facilities encouraged by the provisions of this act and accepted by the States, shall be organized, supervised and administered exclusively by the legally constituted State and local authorities of said States.

And the Secretary of Education shall exercise no authority in relation thereto, except as herein provided, to insure that all funds apportioned to said State shall be used for the purposes for which they are appropriated.

The language of the bill shows how absurd was the charge that the educational machinery of the country is to be placed under the control of one autocratic overseer here in Washington.

A provision is made that each State must duplicate the fund offered by the National Government if it is to be received by the State, and a further provision is found in section 10 that in order to share in the apportionment provided by this section (which is the appropriation to be used in public elementary and secondary schools for the partial payment of teacher's salaries) a State shall establish and maintain the following requirements, or these requirements shall be approximated as nearly as constitutional provisions will permit "(a) A legal school term of at least 24 weeks in each year for the benefit of all the children of school age in such State; (b) a compulsory school attendance law requiring all children between the ages of 7 and 14 to attend some school for at least 24 weeks in each year (c) a law requiring that the English language shall be the basic language of instruction in the common-school branches in all schools, public and private."

The purpose of the bill is to aid the States in furnishing an opportunity for each child to attend a public school and to aid in improving the work of the school; to require a term of at least 24 weeks in each year for the benefit of all children is a reasonable provision, and the least that any State should furnish.

If the bill stimulates every State to furnish public schools open for not less than 24 weeks each year to all the children of the State, it will do great good.

Surely no one will question the propriety of making the English language the basic language of instruction in the common schools, public and private.

This disposes of two of the three requirements necessary to sharing in the appropriation.

The provision requiring a compulsory school-attendance law does not require that the children shall attend the public schools but requires the 24 weeks' attendance to be in some school, public, parochial, or private, leaving the choice to the parents. That all children may have a chance to go to school, the State must see to it that the opportunity is given, but no requirement is made upon parents that their children shall attend the public school.

The Presbyterian Church in the city of Atlanta of which I am a member, maintains a church school. The bill in no way interferes with this school. Attendance for 24 weeks each year upon this school or any church school Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal, or Catholics any private school meets the requirements of the bill. The claim that it takes away the right of parents to educate their own children is plainly false.

The charge that this bill would banish God from every school is without the slightest foundation. The bill can only be considered an assault upon religion by those who oppose public schools, and by those who believe ignorance on the part of the masses increases religious faith. The charge is really an attack upon public education and shall not be permitted to hide behind an expressed attack on this bill. It is founded upon opposition to taxing all the people that all the children may have an opportunity to obtain an education. It is an assault upon our public-school systems in every State, and carried to its logical consequence would abolish all public education conducted by State or local authorities.

If public education were suppressed, more than half of the children of our country would grow up in ignorance.

I need not dwell upon the calamity which would be visited upon our country if the opportunity for education at public expense were suppressed.

Taxes paid for the support of public schools are the highest contribution made by wealth for the welfare of our citizens and for the future of our country.

These attacks might have been expected of leaders of thought in the Dark Ages; at the present time they are surprising and shocking.

I can not believe that the real leaders of the Catholic Church or the rank and file of its members in the United States are opposed to public schools, or to opportunity being given to every child of obtaining education at the public expense.

I hope they will learn the real meaning of the bills to create a Department of Education. If they so, and if I am right in my estimate of their attitude toward public schools, they will aid in stopping the wise opposition to these bills to which I have referred.

* * *


I have taken the breed of all nations,
Barred no religion or race;
From the highest and lowest of stations
They came and I found them place.

Powers invisible drew them,
Freedom unborn was their quest,
'Til my uttermost borderlands knew them
The least of the world and the best.

They came with the wisdom of sages,
The darkness, the stain and the dirt,
They came with the glory of ages,
And I took the my hope and my hurt.

I have gathered the breed of all nations,
Drawn from each caste and each clan;
Tried them and proved them and loved them
And made them American.

Made them a nation of Builders,
Fearless and faithful and free,
Entered them, passed them and raised them
To the Master's Sublime Degree.

Theirs is the task of restoring
The Ancient and Honored Guild
The work to the Speculative,
The spirit to those who build.

'Til none shall be less than a Master,
And know but one Ruler above,
Bound by the spirit of justice
And the mortar of brotherly love.

'Til the house shall belong to the Workman
And the Craft come again to its own;
And this is your task, oh, my people!
Through you will the Lost Word be known.

— Josephine B. Bowman. Peoria, Illinois.

* * *


Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow, Indiana

Old Book! Thou solid Rock of all the years Thy covers bring to me sweet memories, Thy golden Truth and Promise still my fears And feed my soul.

My father's eyes did search Thee and did find Thy fruited lessons which he made to show In e'en his smallest dealings with mankind While he was here.

My mother's hands caressed Thy page and board While from her blessed lips Thy truths have come. O Bright illume this picture for me, Lord, My eyes grow dim.

They loved us both, Old Book, and taught me Thee. Though scarred Thy boards and yellow is Thy page, No other book can ever be for me So loved a guide.

* * *


Bro. Dudley Wright, England

Wise men tell us that there never has been a woman Freemason. Perhaps that is true. This question has been called to the attention of the able scholar and devoted Mason who contributes this series of articles. Can Freemasonry enlarge its borders to include women or must they forever remain outside the pale? If they are to be made Masons in literal truth in what way can we reorganize the ritual so as to eliminate certain features which might prove embarassing to them? If they cannot be admitted into full membership in what way can the spirit and teachings of this ancient Fraternity be made available to them? Since Freemasonry began to be this has been a moot question; it is still. It will be for years to come. It is a theme of perrennial interest. For this reason we are very glad indeed to give to our readers the reasoned and mature judgments of a scholar who has every right to speak on this interesting question.



THE ORDER OF FENDEURS, or Forest Masons, possessed legends claiming a high antiquity. One professed to trace the Order back to the time of Alexander the Great, which was the ground for the introduction of a degree called the "Knight of Thebes." The Fendeurs were, in all probability, a branch of the Carbonari, or Charcoal Burners, a political league which made its appearance in the twelfth century.

There was a revival in 1747 by the Chevalier Beauchaine, when the Order became so popular that ladies and gentlemen of the highest distinction and rank considered it an honor to be permitted to join it. It had a successful career until the restoration of the monarchy, when it was disbanded.

The Chantier or lodge was held in the day-time. In summer it was held in a broad garden walk, adorned with trees, and in the winter in a large room adorned with branches of trees, or hangings representing a for est and the various occupations of the Fendeurs. When the sun set on their labors, they lighted a moving transparency of the sun in the East and a number of colored lamps concealed in the branches.

The seat for the Master, or Père Maître, as he was called, was placed in the East, and was a great block of wood, called the Block of Honor. In front of it was placed a log of oak, with a woodcutter's axe and two wedges, one of iron and one of wood. To the right was a large tree stump, on which were placed the Constitutions of the Order, a stone cup, and a small black loaf for every candidate for initiation, together with an envelope containing five sous, a pair of white gloves, a russet-colored sash edged with green, a small gilt axe on a ribbon, a box whistle in a rosette, and a carpenter's apron. Behind the Master's seat was placed a holly bush.

To the North were placed as many blocks as there were candidates, a crown of oak leaves being placed on each block.

In the South and North were arranged in the form of a circle as many faggots as there were Fendeurs present, while bundles of wood and beds of leaves or turf were also carelessly arranged.

Two blocks of oak, before each of which was placed a large log, were in the West. Beside each log was placed a wooden axe with a long handle, as well as two wedges, one of iron and one of wood.

In the center of the Chantier were placed a number of saws, axes, wedges, with chips, branches and leaves.

At one time, says Ragon in his Manuel complet de la Maçonnerie d'Adoption ou Maçonnerie des Dames, four huts were erected towards the East. The hut to the right of the Master was made with three poles stretched apart, and held one to another by hoops. At the point of junction was a little vessel of water. It was furnished with straw mats and became the hut of Cousin Hermit, dressed as a monk. He had for seat a stool, and in front a block on which was a stone money box and a book of meditations. In front of the block and underneath the water was a cushion for the candidate to hear on his knees the exhortation of the hermit. To give proof of his charitable disposition he was told to put the five sous, which had been given him, into the money-box. Holding the cord leading to the bucket, Cousin Hermit said: "Be washed and purged from all the filth which accompanies the Briquet and may the protecting virtue of the Fendeurs be your guide and safeguard," and at the same time he upset the water over the candidate.

The second hut belonged to Cousin Winedresser. It was made of leaves and well covered in. At the top projected a stick which was covered with a cabbage as a sign. Inside were two tressels and a barrel of wine for the refreshment of the Cousin by order of the Master. The honor of occupancy of the third hut was reserved for the most frivolous member of the company, who took the name of Mére Cateau and the costume of a woman, with a peasant woman's mob-cap, a jacket, a red or blue petticoat, a fichu, a white apron, and a great golden cross and heart. Near to it was a wooden stool, a bucket full of water, a board crossed over it, some linen in suds, soap, and round stick. In front was a faggot for the candidate, who, emerging from his washing lesson, found himself covered with soap.

The fourth but was opposite the Winedresser's. It was made of earth, and with a long and broad straw bed. The occupant of this was known as Cousin Bear.

Both men and women were admitted to the Order, and the oath taken by a female candidate was as follows:

"I promise and swear on my word of honor, on the symbol of cleanliness, in the presence of the Père Maître and the worthy cousins of this Chantier, never to betray the secrets of the worthy Cousins or Companions, and if I fail in my promise I consent to be soaked, beaten and twisted like a bundle of dirty linen; then to be cast to the bottom of the vat of the worthy and benevolent Cousin Cateau, then to be exposed for forty days in the deepest Forest, to live on acorns only, like a sow, and to be devoured by wild beasts."

The following was the ceremonial adopted in the opening of a Chantier:

Père Maître: "Chief of the Wood-yard, Cousin Elm and Cousin Oak! See if the bar is in place, the tools well sharpened, and what sort of weather it is."

Answer: "Père Maître, the sun is shining to hearten us for work, the bar of the Chantier is in place, and the tools are well sharpened."

Père Maître: "Therefore we can get to work. Announce to the good Cousins that the Chantier is open."

Answer: "Cousins I give you notice on behalf of the Père Maître that the Chantier is open."

All shout three times "A l'Avantage" and then "Vive les Fendeurs." While this is being done Cousin Elm goes out and, on returning beats la douelle and whistles, the beats and whistles being repeated by all, in turn, with the exception of the Père Maître.

Père Maître: "Cousin Oak, go and see what it is."

Cousin Elm having made pretense to go out again returns with Cousin Oak.

Cousin Elm: "Good luck, Père Maître, good luck."

Père Maître: "Good luck, good Cousin, good luck. Whence comest thou?"

Cousin Elm: "From the Royal Forest, Père Maître, from the Vente d'Honneur, whence come all the worthy Cousins, good comrades Hewers."

Père Maître: "Whom didst thou meet in the forest?"

Cousin Elm: "I met good Briquets and Briquettes."

Père Maître: "What didst thou do with them?"

Cousin Elm: "I shut them up in the hut under the guard of the Aspen till you should give command concerning them."

Père Maître: "Cousin Aspen, are they safe?"

Cousin Aspen: "They are, Père Maître. I answer for them to you."

Père Maître: "Go and fetch them one by one."

All present then sing: "Strike, Hewers, strike down to the heart of the tree."


A whistle is heard outside, which is repeated by all, excepting the Père Maître.

Père Maître: "Cousin Elm, what is it now?"

Cousin Elm: "Some one knocks at the Chantier."

Père Maître: "Go and see who it is."

Cousin Elm: "Père Maître, it is Cousin Aspen, who brings us a Briquet (i. e., candidate)."

Père Maître: "Bring him (or her) in."

The Candidate is brought in and placed before the Père Maître, who says: "What has made thee dare to come in our forests?"

Candidate (prompted): "Père Maître, the sincere desire to be received as a good Cousin, a good Comrade Hewer."

The Père Maître asks the Candidate several questions, when, if answered satisfactorily, he says: "Send him flying." When this command has been obeyed, the Père Maître says: "Cry his sale." The Candidate is then made to run three times round the Chantier, while the Cousins shout A l'Avantage.

Père Maître: "The sale of the Briquet is cried. Is anyone opposed to the sale?"

All: "No, Père Maître."

Père Maître: "Show him the green leaf."

The Père Maître then addresses the candidate as follows:

"So thou desirest to be one of us! It seems to me that thou wilt have to lower thy views, for thou seest that we are poor country folk to whom work does not give polish, but who are more sincere than courtiers. We are of one heart and one mind; work is nought to us, we are used to it. He who has done thee harm will find it changed to good. We will defend thee as thou must us in danger. Thou seest our garments, our dwelling, and our food. They show the simplicity and the uprightness of our hearts. The sun rises always serenely for us, and the earth never refuses us her gifts, sickness is ever far from us, because we drive from our huts idleness, softness, and daintiness. This, in a few words, is the condition of our Society. It is thine, if thou art resolved to live as we do. If thou feelest any repug nance thou canst say so. I will make means easy for thee to depart from this Forest, safe and sound, under a trusty guard. who will put thee in thy way."

Candidate (prompted): "Père Maître, I consent to all."

Père Maître: "Let him choose a godfather."

The Candidate is then led to the various huts in turn, at each of which he is made to work. He then returns to the Père Maître.

Père Maître: "Art thou content?"

Candidate: "Yes, Père Maître."

The Oath or Obligation is then taken.

Père Maître: "Art thou content? Wilt thou be faithful?"

Candidate: "Yes, Père Maître."

Père Maître: "Cousin Oak, let the Candidate be seated on the Log of Honor."

The Candidate is then seated on the log, crowned with ivy and flowers, given wine to drink and black break to eat, the Cousins meanwhile singing: "Long Live the Fendeurs."

The Père Maître then gives him a piece of parsley, saying:

"Respect the stem from which this springs; use the fruit sparingly and destroy it neither in root nor branch."

The plant is then put in his buttonhole, his regalia is given him and he is instructed by Cousin Oak in various duties of a Cousin.


The Ordre des Felicitaires or the "Order of the Happy People" was established in Paris in 1742 or 1743 by Bro. de Chambonnet and several officers of marine. All the emblems of the Order together with the ritual expressions were nautical in character, and the sisters were navigated symbolically by the brethren to the island of Felicity. In the oath or obligation the candidate pledged himself to preserve the secrecy of the ceremonial of initiation and never to moor a vessel in any port where there was already a vessel of the Order. If the candidate was a vessel she swore never to receive a foreign vessel into port. The Order which for a long time conducted its proceedings without reproach numbered at first many noblemen and distinguished women amongst its members. Afterwards, however, the meetings became so grossly immoral in character, females being, in some cases, passed through the various degrees practically in a state of nudity that within two years of its foundation it was dissolved, to be succeeded in 1745 by


This Order preserved the principal features of the Ordre des Felicitaires. In each four degrees were conferred, viz., Cabin-boy, Captain, Commodore, and Vice Admiral, the Master of the lodge being known as the Admiral. Only the passwords and regalia were changed, the cable being replaced by an anchor — this becoming the jewel of the Order.


Very little is known of this Order, beyond the fact that it is said to have been established in Paris in 1740 by "seven wise men." At initiation the candidate was conducted by two members of the Order into the centre of the temple where was a table on which was a white cloth on which were three candles around a statue of Minerva. The following obligation was taken on initiation.

"I swear and promise on my honour to keep locked with in my breast the knowledge that I may now acquire and never to speak of it save to Companions of the Order of Penelope or to the Companions of Ulysses."


This Order was established in Brittany in the middle of the eighteenth century. The sign was made by raising the hands to a level with the eyes, the palms turned upwards, and the five fingers joined. The grip was given by shaking hands with the fingers interlaced, the shake being given three times reciprocally. The pass-word or phrase was: "Have you gathered the roses?" to which the response was: "Also the grapes."


This Order was established in Paris in 1771 by several noblemen and ladies. It had but a brief existence, though it created considerable sensation during its short history. It was instituted for the purpose of rendering service to humanity and the custom was to inscribe in a book, which is said to be still in existence, the praiseworthy actions of the members of the Order, both male and female. Active membership was confined to French men and women but foreigners could become affiliated. There are no particulars in existence as to its ritual, constitution, or rules.


This Order was founded in Paris in 1778 by M. Chaumont, private secretary to Louis-Philippe of Orleans, at the request, it is said, of the Duke of Chartres. It was an androgynous Order: the male president was known as the Hierophant and the female president as the High Priestess. Men were initiated by the Hierophant and women by the High Priestess. The Obligation was as follows:

"I swear and promise in the name of the Maker of the Universe, Who has the power to renew unceasingly at His pleasure His most excellent work, never to reveal the secrets of the Order of the Rose. If I prove false to my oath, may the mysteries add nothing to my pleasures and instead of roses of delight may I find only the thorns of repentance."

The temple of initiation was known as the Temple of Love. It was decorated in a very handsome manner and ornamented with devices of gallantry. Love-knots were traced on the floor and on the carpet which sur rounded the throne of the High Priestess, on which the candidate for initiation stood during the ceremony. The initiation ceremony was very similar to that used in the Lodges of Adoption, but the following question was asked: "What age are you?" to which the Candidate, if a male, replied: "The age to love," and, if a female, "The age of pleasing and of loving." Perfumes were offered to the statue of Venus by the candidate on being conducted to the altar. In 1780 there was a grand festival of the Order in Paris, when the ceremony of the initiation of a Nymph of the Rose was performed in the presence of the Duke of Chartres.


This was a Society on the Adoptive principle which was founded in Denmark in 1777. It founded and maintained at its own expense the Asylum for the Blind at Copenhagen, said to be the largest and best managed of similar institutions in Europe.


Among other Orders and Societies may be mentioned: L'Ordre des Dames Ecossaises de l'Hospice du Mon Thabor; the Order of Knights and Ladies of Joy, founded in Paris in 1696, under the protection of Bacchus and Venus, whose printed statutes are still in existence; the German Order of the Rose, founded in Germany in 1784, by Francis Matthaiis Grossinger; the Order of Harmony, founded in 1788, by Grossinger, on the collapse of the Order of the Rose; the Order of the Lovers of Pleasure, founded by some young officers of the French army on 25th December, 1808, a military Order said to have been much favored by Napoleon I.; and the Mopses, known to all students of Freemasonry, which became an androgynous Order, admitting women to all offices except that of Grand Master, who was elected for life, though subordinate to him there was a Grand Mistress, also elected for life.

The Indifferents was an Order which existed in France in the middle of the eighteenth century. Mdlle. Salle, a famous danseuse, was, for a time, its president. Men and women were admitted to the Order, the rites of which were of a quasi-Masonic character. The badge was a ribbon, striped black, white, and yellow, and the device was an imitation of an icicle. The members took an oath to fight against Love, whose power they renounced.

* * *


Edited by Bro. H. L. Haywood



THE Course of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course with the paper by Brother Haywood.


The Course is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:

Division I.

Ceremonial Masonry.

  1. The Work of a Lodge.
  2. The Lodge and the Candidate.
  3. First Steps.
  4. Second Steps
  5. Third Steps.

Division II.

Symbolical Masonry.

  1. Clothing.
  2. Working Tools.
  3. Furniture.
  4. Architecture.
  5. Geometry.
  6. Signs.
  7. Words.
  8. Grips.

Division III.

Philosophical Masonry.

  1. Foundations.
  2. Virtues.
  3. Ethics.
  4. Religious Aspect.
  5. The Quest.
  6. Mysticism.
  7. The Secret Doctrine.

Division IV.

Legislative Masonry.

  1. The Grand Lodge.
    1. Ancient Constitutions.
    2. Codes of Law.
    3. Grand Lodge Practices.
    4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
    5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
  2. The Constituent Lodge.
    1. Organization.
    2. Qualifications of Candidates.
    3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
    4. Visitation.
    5. Change of Membership.

Division V.

Historical Masonry.

  1. The Mysteries — Earliest Masonic Light.
  2. Study of Rites — Masonry in the Making.
  3. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
  4. National Masonry.
  5. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
  6. Feminine Masonry.
  7. Masonic Alphabets.
  8. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
  9. Biographical Masonry.
  10. Philological Masonry — Study of Significant Words.


Each month we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. At the head of each installment will be given a number of "Helpful Hints" consisting of questions to be used by the chairman of the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point touched upon in the paper.

Whenever possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered by Brother Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus be presented.

The monthly installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the Committees will have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.


Immediately preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.


The Lodge should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine) should be transacted — all possible time to be given to the study period.

After the Lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the Research Committee. This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for the evening. All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned should be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper.


  1. Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers thereto. (Suggestion: While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
  2. Discussion of the above.
  3. The subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner.
  4. Question Box.


Invite questions from any and all Brethren present. Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular benefit and get them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of. Every one of the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings which may not perhaps be actually covered at all in the paper If at the time these questions are propounded no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material we have will be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact we are prepared to make special research when called upon, and will usually be able to give answers within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by any member of the Society.


The foregoing information should enable local Committees to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However, we shall welcome all inquiries and communications from interested Brethren concerning any phase of the plan that is not entirely clear to them, and the services of our Study Club Department are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club Committees at all times.

* * *


In conducting the study meetings the Chairman should endeavor to hold the discussions as closely as possible to the text and not permit the members to speak too long at one time, or to stray onto another subject.

Whenever it becomes evident that a discussion is turning from the original subject the Chairman should request the speaker to make a note of the particular point or phase of the matter he wishes to discuss or inquire into, and bring it up when the Question Box period is opened.



Recite the monitorial lecture on the Weeping Virgin monument.

Was the Weeping Virgin monument known to the ritual of the eighteenth century? Is it now generally found in European systems and in all American jurisdictions? Is there a brother present from a jurisdiction where this emblem does not appear in the monitor of his mother jurisdiction? By whom is the emblem supposed to have been invented? Who was Jeremy Cross? What is the tradition as to where Cross borrowed the emblem? What is another theory? How should we view this emblem in the light of such meagre information concerning its origin as we now possess?



Recite the monitorial lecture describing the Temple of Solomon.

Where was the Temple erected? For what other things was the hill on which the Temple was erected noted in Hebrew tradition? How was the hill described by the Mohammedans? What great event in the life of Mohammed is claimed by him to have occurred there ?

What influence did the temple have on the legends, history and traditions of the people of early times?

Until how long ago was it the general belief that our present-day Masonic organization was formed at the time of the building of the Temple? After receiving your degrees did you believe this to be a fact? (A general question.) What sort of marks have been discovered on the original foundation stones of the Temple? Are we certain of an actual historical connection between the Phoenicians and our present organization? How is the Masonry of today interested in the Temple legend?

How did the Temple find its way into our Masonic system? What is Vibert's contention? What was the theory of it having been adopted in 1724? What is the position of Johnston and Rylands on the subject?

What is Brother Waite's theory?

How does Brother Haywood compare our "work" with the building of the Temple?

In what manner did the Temple differ from our present-day houses of worship? In what manner did it differ from other temples? What is our object in building a "spiritual" temple?



Recite the monitorial lecture on the Pot of Incense.

Why was incense burned in ancient days? What is the reason for using it today? Of what is incense an emblem, in both the Old and New Testament?

How is incense used in Masonry of today? What should we bear in mind regarding the symbol?



Recite the monitorial lecture on the beehive.

Of what was the bee an emblem to the Hindus? What may be believed to be the origin of the custom of using the bee as a symbol of immortality? Why did Napoleon adopt the bee as his royal emblem?

How was the bee symbolism used by the Greeks and some of their modern imitators?

How did the beehive come to be used in Christian symbolism?

Why did the Egyptians call the bees "an obedient people"? How does the beehive symbolize a lodge of Masons? Are there any "drones" in the "hive" of Masonry? Can you suggest how these "drones" might be transformed into "workers"?



Vol. IV.—Bee Hive, p. 323; Marble Monument, p. 322; Pot of Incense, p. 323.

Vol. V.—Building of the Temple at Jerusalem, p. 235.

Mackey's Encyclopaedia:

Cross, Jeremy L., p. 188; Mount Moriah, p. 492; Temple of Solomon, p. 767; Webb, Thomas Smith, p. 841; Weeping Virgin, p. 842.

* * *


Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa




THIS MONUMENT symbol was unknown to the ritual in the eighteenth century; it is not now found in European systems, nor even in some American jurisdictions. According to such slender evidence as we possess it seems to have been invented by Jeremy Cross, the famous New Hampshire ritualist and pupil of Thomas Smith Webb. According to one tradition, Cross borrowed the idea from a tombstone; according to another he adapted an old picture of Isis weeping over the dead Osiris. Whatever may be the truth of the matter, the symbol is of no such importance as many others. It is an elaborate continuance, utterly lacking in that quality of naturalness and inevitableness which is found in all the older emblems so that its very artificiality and complexity invites every man to fashion his own interpretation. Until new light is thrown on its origin we can make no better use of it than is made by the lecture itself, where it is transformed into a kind of allegorical picture of the tragedy of Hiram's death.



The great Temple of Solomon was erected on a table of rock which crowned a Jerusalem hill called Mt. Moriah. This hill itself occupies a most conspicuous place in Hebrew tradition, according to which it was the spot where Adam was created, where Cain and Abel sacrificed, where Noah built his altar at the subsidence of the flood, where Abraham offered Isaac, and David erected his altar. The Mohammedans, who inherited so much from the Jews, described it as the "Center of the World," and "The Gate of Heaven," and Mohammed persuaded his followers that it was from this same hill that he had made his famous ascent to heaven.

The temple which Solomon erected there by the assistance of Hiram of Tyre has had an even larger place in the traditions of mankind. Few realize how high that temple on Mount Moriah towered in the his tory of the olden world, and how the story of its build ing haunted the legends and traditions of the times following. Many a church in the Middle Ages was patterned on it and many a writer, such as Durandus and Bunyan, used it as a symbol of religious truth. In 'making so much of their symbolism to cluster about this dream-haunted building the early Masons were only following in the footsteps of many others.

Until a half century ago Masonic writers believed that our Craft had been organized during the building of the Temple, even in detail, and that the Order had survived from then until the present. Today, there is no need to say, we can not hold that position, we have a fairly accurate conception of the size and form of the structure, and we know that it was built by Phoenician workmen, even as our legend asserts, for archeologists have uncovered Phoenician masons' marks on the original foundation stones. What was the actual historical connection between the Temple building and our own Fraternity still remains covered by obscurity. But while we wait for future research to establish that connection, or lack of connection, we need not abate our interest in the Temple or minimize its importance to our ritual, for the Masonry of today is interested in it as a symbol rather than as history.

How the Temple found its way into our system is also a debated question. If we accept Vibert's contention that "there is no evidence that we possessed it at all before the eighteenth century" we are still left with the question on our hands, How did it come to be adopt ed at that time? In 1724 Villalpandus exhibited a large model in London, accompanied by an explanatory handbook. and this created an immense amount of interest in the subject. Some have believed that the Freemasons of that period were so caught by this wave of interest that they worked it into their symbolism, but Brother S. P. Johnston, who went through the records with a fine-toothed comb, announced that he was unable to find one shred of evidence to support this theory. (A. Q. C., vol. 12, p. 135). Brother Rylands, who was second to none as a Masonic scholar, supported this position in the following statement: "No satisfactory reason has so far been offered why the Temple of Solomon and its builders have been selected to play an important part in one division of our legendary history."

Since Brother Rylands wrote the above sentence, Brother A. E. Waite has come forth with a theory that seems reasonable whether it can be accepted as a "satisfactory" reason or not. Holding as he does that many of the Speculatives who were "accepted" during the eighteenth century were Kabbalists in one degree or another he believes that we may have inherited the Temple symbolism from that source. The Kabbalists had made the Temple one of their principal symbols for more than a millennium and many of their interpretations were strikingly similar to ours. If we accept the theory of Kabbalistic influence — as I, myself, am inclined to do, at least to a certain extent — we may well believe that our use of the Temple was borrowed from that very influential group of teachers. Be that as it may, we shall always keep the Temple symbolism for nothing could more adequately portray that which is the great ideal of our Craft — the building up of a Divine human brotherhood here among men.

The Temple was built of wood, stone and metals taken from the earth; but these materials were so prepared, and so adjusted one to another that a miracle of solemn beauty resulted. We also are gathering together materials which seem earthy or common men with their fleshly nature, their appetites and passion,— and we hope so to prepare and to shape them that in the very act of brotherly union a holy structure of heavenly loveliness will come into existence, a House not made with Hands, in which our human nature will be transfigured.

The Temple of Solomon was not an ordinary house of worship, for the worshippers remained in the outer courts; nor was it patterned after the earth or the sun as other temples were, for its entrance faced the East instead of the West. By its orientation and its construction it suggested the system of heaven and it was designed to be God's dwelling place among men. We also would build a House for God; but whereas the Jews would have Him dwell in a Temple of Stone, We would fain prepare for Him a Temple of Flesh; and our hope is that through the regeneration of men, and through their banding together in a fraternity, the All Highest will tabernacle with us, so that God and man may abide together in a Holy Eternal House.



The use of incense in worship is almost as old and as universal as religion itself. In ancient days when the gods were merely magnified invisible human beings it was supposed that they would enjoy sweet odors as much as men did, so incense was burned on the altar that they might inhale its "unctuous smoke." Where the custom of slaughtering animals on the altar was in use incense was also employed to cover up the odor; this was especially necessary in warm climates where the malodorousness of a dead carcass soon became un endurable. As religious rites became more spiritualized the burning of incense was usually retained but in a more symbolic way. Thus, in both the Old and the New Testaments, incense is used as an emblem of prayer, as many texts will testify. In the early Christian period when occultism began to take root, the occultists employed incense in their magic rites, believing it to possess some mysterious potency, like a spell. At the time of the Reformation the custom of using incense in Christian churches became almost abandoned, at least by Protestant bodies but there is a tendency abroad now to renew the custom, not for any occult or theological purpose, but simply to add to the pleasures of the church ritual.

In Masonry, incense is now used only as a symbol "typifying prayer," and such is its significance in the lecture. But it must be noted — it is usually over looked, in spite of the ritual's insistence on it — that our symbol is not so much the incense itself, as the pot, or vessel, in which it is kept. If incense means prayer then the pot of incense means the human heart from which prayers arise, and the purport of the symbol is to remind us that only such prayers are acceptable to God as rise from a heart guileless and pure.



Both the bee and the beehive have been used symbolically from a very old time. In some cases, for what reason it is not hard to guess, the bee was made the emblem of heaven, as may be seen in certain old Hindu pictures of the god Krishna wherein bees hover over the deity's head, and also in similar early pictures of Jesus. Both the Persians and the Egyptians some times embalmed their dead in honey because they believed it to possess antiseptic properties; out of this custom, we may believe, arose the latter habit of using the bee as a symbol of immortality. Alexander the Great, so it is said, was embalmed in this manner; and so, also, were certain of the Merovingian kings. The last fact may explain why the bee has so often been used symbolically by the French, and why Napoleon, to lend luster of age to his upstart dynasty, adopted the insect as his royal emblem. The bee was used as a symbol of immortality by the Mithraic cult, so popular in the time of the Caesars, and by the early Christians, as the catacomb pictures still witness.

The bee was also made use of by another order of symbolism. Theocritus tells a charming tale in his Idylls of how Cupid complained to Venus of bee stings and how the goddess archly replied: "Thou too art like a bee, for altho a tiny child, yet how terrible are the wounds thou dost inflict!" Anacreon includes the same conceit in his Odes as do other Greek poets, as well as a few of their more modern imitators, such as Manuel de Villegas, the Castilian, Felice Zappi, and even the German Lessing. Sometimes one will see bees flying about the head of Cupid on old Greek pottery; this is to suggest that as bees steal honey from the rose so does love steal honey from the lips of maidens; and as the stings of the bee are very painful so are the sharp darts of love.

Bees were not domesticated in Europe until the age of the monasteries, when the monks considered a hive an essential part of the equipment; owing to this custom the beehive came to be used frequently in Christian symbolism. In the exhortations to the monks the church fathers would point to the hive as an example of industry. In the old Ely cathedral of England a woman weeping over a broken beehive evidently represents a home when ravaged by indolence or drunkenness.

The Egyptians called the bees "an obedient people" because of their faithfulness to the rules of the hive and to order. They are a far-sighted people, always preparing for the future, and their industriousness has become proverbial. How admirably, therefore, does the beehive symbolize a lodge of Masons which should ever be the home of industry, cooperation and order! Alas! as many Masters have learned, in the lodge as in the hive, there are often many drones! The brother who could discover a remedy for the drone evil would lay the whole Fraternity under everlasting indebtedness to his genius. The bees, as we know, kill their drones with scant ceremony; that would be a swift, but un happy manner of disposing of ours! How to destroy the dronishness without killing the drone, that, as Hamlet would say, is the problem!

* * *


By Bro. Charles A. Conover, Michigan



WHEN the enquiring Master Mason seeks for still "further light in Masonry" he is informed that the next group of degrees to which he is eligible is those of the chapter and the first one consists of Mark Master Mason. The very name "Mark" is at once suggestive to him as he undoubtedly remembers his first school experience when sent to the blackboard to "mark."

It has occurred to me that a short history or resume of the "Mark," that is the Mason's Mark, its early use and its appropriation by the "operatives" whereby their work might be known and designated, and then later when symbolically appropriated by the "speculatives" when evolving the ceremonies which have now come to be known as the degree of Mark Master, might be of interest to the majority of the Craft readers. These articles are not claimed by the writer as original but they are gathered from such sources as have been available in a very hasty preparation. It is hoped, however, that they may not be entirely uninteresting to you. I acknowledge my indebtedness to the Iowa Masonic Library for many references.

In an extended article on "Masons' Marks" by R. W. Brother Chas. Aburrow, P. D. G., in the Masonic Journal of South Africa, is a list of some 34 groups of Marks selected from as many different locations. These were collected and published by Prof. G. Godwin in a paper read before the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1868. These Marks extend over many centuries of time and have been gathered from buildings in many climes. These embrace the Great Pyramids of Gizeh; Churches in the Holy Land; Pompeii; the Doge's Palace, Venice; Roman Altars in England; Yorkshire; Kenilworth; Sussex; Lincoln Cathedral; Leicester; Canterbury Cathedral; Haddon Hall; Yarmouth; Bray; Great Briton; an old Minute Book of the "Court of the Bricklayers and Tylers Company," those signing the book in 1580 also appended their Marks; Glasgow Cathedral Crypt; Ireland, St. Mary's Youghal, 13th Century; Strasburg Cathedral; France; St. Michall's Dijon, Notre Dame; Tyrol, Botzen; Switzerland, Lausanne Cathedral; Geneva Cathedral; Sweden, Upsala Cathedral; Germany, Cathedral Munster; Austria, St. Stephen's; Spain, San Ysidor, Santiago de Compostella, St. Maria; Portugal, Church of St. Francis, St. Cross, etc. These Marks as illustrated form all possible combinations of lines and figures. The most striking feature is the similarity found in several countries and in different centuries.

In a letter from Prof. Godwin to the Society of Antiquaries, he says: "The Marks of which we are speaking, it can perhaps hardly be doubted, were made chiefly to distinguish the work of different individuals. At the present time the man who works a stone (being different from the man who sets it) makes his Mark on the bed or internal face of it, so that it may be identified.

"The fact, however, that in the ancient buildings it is only a certain number of the stones which bear symbols, and that the Marks found in different countries (although the variety is great) are in many cases identical, and in all have a tendency to show that the men who employed them did so by system, and that the system, if not the same, was closely analogous in one country to that of the others."

In Portugal, however, going further than this, it would seem to have been urged that these signs were symbolical, and were used as means of recognition by the Freemasons, who, as some believed, traveled over Central Europe, exercising their art. I may here mention that the principal object of the Chevalier's Memoir is to show that the opinion of those who have believed that these Marks have a Masonic significance cannot be admitted. He writes:

"Why should the Freemasons, who traveled to execute their labours in a body, each accompanied by his family, have placed these signs upon the stones, since each one knew the other for his partner? For none but those initiated or affiliated to their lodges were permitted to help in the construction of those beautiful edifices; thus enabling them to protect each other reciprocally as loyal brothers, and, above all, to keep amongst themselves the secrets of their art. Why, then, show these Marks to all the world (as it was said) if they were simply used with the intention of making themselves known as Freemasons, when every workman knew the other as a brother? And besides, would they have been permitted to make public these signs if they were really those of the order into which they had been admitted? Again, if these signs were really characteristic of the Masonic order, they ought, without doubt, to be identical on all buildings, because the hieroglyphic alphabet, or scale, being composed of a limited number of figures, and Masonry having at the commencement but a single rite, the sign would have been reserved for the most urgent cases for recognition or correspondence, and never employed uselessly or exposed to the observation of the profane."

Prof. Godwin concludes his writings on this interesting theme by saying: "No circumstance which promises to throw even the smallest additional light on the early history of those wonderful men to whom we are indebted for so many magnificent buildings can be deemed insignificant or unworthy of consideration, and I think we, as Freemasons, having a deep interest in this subject, certainly agree with him."

In "The Builder," year 1863, April 4 and 18, June and July issues, Mr. John E. Dove wrote four articles on "Geometrical and Other Symbols," which cover a very wide area of research, extending outside the realms of the particular subject we are considering, but still, from its affinity, giving useful light on the origin of "Masons' Marks."

The author says: "There is sufficient evidence that some of these symbols have been extensively and generally used, both in ancient and modern times, and both amongst Eastern and Western nations, singular accordance in character, seems as well as amongst heathen and Christian communities."

In the second and third articles (April 18 and June 6) frequent reference is made to the early writings of Prof. Godwin and other writers in connection with "Masons' Marks."

The fourth article (July 11) deals with the psychological phase of Freemasonry and ancient religious mysteries in general, which is best read and thought over by the Mason in the quietude of his own sanctum.

The following extracts from "The History of Freemasonry," by the late Bro. R. F. Gould, are instructive. Volume 2, Chapter 9.

In 1841 to 1843, M. Didron, of Paris, communicated a series of observations on Marks to the "Comite Historique des Arts et Monuments." He says it is generally thought these Marks divide themselves into two classes — those of the overseers and those of the men who worked the stones. The Marks of the first class consist generally of monogrammatic characters, and are placed separately on the stones; those of the second class partake more of the nature of symbols, such as shoes, trowels, mallets, etc.

Bro. Gould says: "It was a law in St. Ninian's Lodge No. 66, at Brechin, that every Mason should register his Mark in a book, and he could not change that Mark at pleasure." To the inquiry, on what principle these Marks were formed, Scottish Masons generally replied: "That they probably had in early times a meaning now unknown, and are still regarded with a sort of reverence; that the only rule for their formation is, that they shall have at least one angle; that the circle must be avoided, and cannot be a true Mason's mark unless in combination with some line that shall form an angle with it; that there is no distinction of rank — that is, that there is no particular class of Marks set apart for and assigned to Master Masons as distinguished from their workmen; and if it should happen that two Masons, meeting at the same work from distant parts, should have the same Mark, then one must for a time assume a distinction, or, as Herolds say, a difference."

The Irish Craftsmen and Masons of the middle ages, it is said, not only had private Marks, but also a dialect called "Bearlagair-na-Sair," which was unknown to any but the initiated of their own callings; and the writer, who is responsible for this statement, asserts that this dialect is still in use among Masons (though not exclusively confined to them) in the counties of Limerick, Clare, Waterford and Cork.

Upon the question as to whether or not Marks were heritable by descent from father to son, the highest authority on Scottish Masonry says: "We have been able to discover in the Mary Chapel records only one instance of a Craftsman having adopted his deceased father's Mark."

Mr. Lyon continues: "Whatever may have been their original significance as exponents of a secret language, a position which is assigned to them by some writers, there is no ground for believing that in the choice of these Marks the sixteenth century Masons were guided by any consideration of their symbolical quality, or of their relation to the propositions of Euclid."

Bro. Gould says as follows:

"A view which has been very generally received is that the short-hand signatures or markings which Masons have for centuries been in the habit of cutting on the stones wrought or hewn by them, may be all included in two classes — the false or blind Mark of the Apprentice, displaying an equal number of points, and the true Mark of the Fellow Craft or passed Mason, consisting of an unequal number of points. Indeed, the late Mr. E. W. Shaw, who had made a collection of 11,000 Marks, professed his ability to discriminate between the Marks of the Master Masons, Fellow Crafts and Apprentices and the 'blind Marks,' as he termed them of those hired to work, but who were not members of the Guild. Two Marks not infrequently occur on the same stone, showing, according to one view, that it had been hewn by the Apprentice, and finished or passed as correct by the Mason; and, in the opinion of other authorities, that the second Mark belonged to the overseer.

I can recommend all Masons to read this exhaustive article on "Masons' Marks," and especially would call your attention to the plate or diagram of Marks given, and the detailed description of same.

"History of Freemasonry," by Mackey and Singleton, Masons' Marks (see Chapter 24.) Mr. Godwin's works are therein often referred to, and many other writers are quoted from, and the whole subject of Marks and their history is fully dealt with. This work will well repay your study.

In "Symbols and Legends of Freemasonry," J. Finlay Finlayson says:

"It was a custom among Operative Masons that each individual artisan should have his special 'Mark,' a signature to identify himself with his works. This Mark, for the greater part, consisted of new arrangements of old geometrical forms, which were peculiar to the Craft, reproducing in the main symbols of the greatest antiquity with such developments and variations as the skill or genius of the Craftsman might suggest."

The late Bro. T. Hayter Lewis read a long paper, "Masonry and Masons' Marks," before the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. This is given in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volume 3, 1890.

Bro. D. O. Scott in the Tyler Keystone says:

Mark Man or Mark Master depends less on tradition to establish its antiquity and has more corroborative history than any other degree, and is considered the oldest in Masonry. It preceded the Master's degree by just so much time as was necessary to make a perfect workman or mechanic out of an apprentice or beginner, and was specialized by means of a Mark.

In the beginning the Mark was used only in order that the stone might be set in its proper place, but afterward, as the number of workmen increased, some proficient, some otherwise, it became necessary, in order to trace inferior work to its proper source, to require the private Mark of each workman, also and later on for a more specific reason. It became the heritage handed down from father to son, — each family Mark being identified by some peculiar variation, or additional symbol, that was unvarying in location and character. These Marks exist in profusion; they can be found on the stones of the most ancient buildings, — those on the Castle of Richmond, built in 1052, being still easily decipherable.


In former times Operative Masons, the "Steinmetzen" of Germany, were accustomed to place some mark or sign of their own invention which, like the monogram of the painters, would seem to identify the work of each. They are to be found upon the cathedrals, churches, castles, and other stately buildings erected since the twelfth century, or a little earlier, in Germany, France, England, and Scotland. As Mr. Godwin has observed in his History in Ruins, it is curious to see that these Marks are of the same character in form, in all these different countries. They were principally crosses, triangles, and other mathematical figures, and many of them were religious symbols.


In the Mark degree there is a certain stone which is said, in the ritual, not to have upon it "the regular mark of the Craft." This expression is derived from the following tradition of the degree: At the building of the Temple, each workman placed his own Mark upon his own materials, so that the workmanship of every Mason might be readily distinguished, and praise or blame be justly awarded. These Marks, according to the lectures, consisted of mathematical figures, squares, angles, lines, and perpendiculars, and hence any figure of a different kind, such as a circle, would not be deemed "the regular mark of the Craft." Of the three stones used in the Mark degree, one is inscribed with a square and another with a plumb or perpendicular, because these were marks familiar to the Craft; but the third, which is inscribed with a circle and certain hieroglyphics, was not known, and was not, therefore, called "regular." (A. G. Mackey).


Extracts from Robt. F. Gould's History of Freemasonry:

That Workmen have been accustomed to mark the product of their labor from very early times is indisputable.

In default of stone, the Chaldeans used bricks, sometimes of unbaked clay hardened by the heat of the sun. The curious archaic characters with which they stamped on the bricks the name of the god or goddess to whom it was dedicated, taken separately, might very well pass for Masons' Marks of a later age. Like the Chaldeans, the Assyrians, in all probability, stamped the inscription upon their bricks with a solid stamp. But, unlike the Chaldeans, who impressed the characters on a small square near the center of the broad faces of the bricks, the writing of the Assyrians either covered the whole face or ran along the edge.

The Babylonians, like the early Chaldeans, seem to have almost entirely used bricks in their construction and like them impressed the inscription on the broad face of the brick, in a square with a solid stamp; but the Egyptians traced their Marks upon the bricks with the finger, and in the great pyramid of King Cheops, the Masons' Marks are scrawled in red pigment.

Each Roman brick-maker had his Mark, such as the figure of a god, a plant or an animal, encircled by his own name. After careful investigation and consideration by eminent Hebrews and others, their conclusions are that the Marks on the Temple stones at Jerusalem are only quarry marks because of the fact that the same Marks appear on the stones at the Port of Sidon and are Phoenician. However, the investigations by the historians and archaeologists confirm the scriptural text that Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders together hewed the stones. Their further conclusions are that we can not be too careful when considering letters, syllables or characters, lest we mistake chance or idle amusement markings for important data. With this in view, probably nothing would have more astonished the workmen of past ages than the interpretation which has been placed on their ancient signatures. For any practicable purpose, large collections and comparing Marks are alone valuable in determining whether the same workmen were employed to any great extent upon buildings in the same countries.

In 1843 "The Builder," an architectural magazine published in England, had two articles of much interest on the subject of Masons' Marks and I take pleasure in reproducing portions. The first is an article carrying the general title of this chapter.

Masons' Marks as a phrase, and in themselves, will be to many a mystery and hieroglyphics; but this is the title we choose to give to a brief notice of a subject which we must at a more leisure period more largely enter upon. We have been reading two published letters of Mr. George Godwin's on "Certain Marks discoverable on the Stones of various Buildings erected in the Middle Ages," which letters are the subject of a communication by that gentleman to the Society of Antiquaries, through Sir Henry Ellis — all honored names, and not least so that of the author of these letters. Mr. Godwin is yet but a young man, but he has, by the indefatigable and earnest exercise of a fitting talent, managed to associate his name with some of the most interesting researches and doings in art that have engaged our attention for the last seven years; and we sincerely hope that his future career may be the appropriate continuance of so much promise at setting out. In these letters he brings to view some 160 specimens of Masons' Marks, from various edifices of the Middle Ages, from Gloucester, Bristol, and Cologne Cathedrals, from various abbeys and churches in England and on the Continent, and from Punic inscriptions found upon the site of Carthage. We could say a great deal, and there is much to be said on this interesting subject, but for the present must confine ourselves to an extract from Mr. Godwin's second letter, headed by the dedication cross taken from his work as from Furness Abbey.


Dear Sir: In the month of December, 1841, I had the pleasure of laying before the society some observations on the fact, that the stones both inside and outside numerous ancient buildings in England and France, bear, in many cases, peculiar Marks or symbols, apparently the work of the original builders. Since then I have had an opportunity of examining the Cathedral of Cologne, and some other sacred edifices in that city, where I found many similar Marks. Copies of some of these, half real size, I beg leave to forward with this letter, in order that they may be compared with the diagrams previously sent.

In length they vary from 1½ to 2 inches. They are not so deeply cut in as those already spoken of, nor are they formed by so wide a line, but nevertheless they are all remarkably clear and distinct. More order is perceptible in the position of the Marks in the interior of this Cathedral than I have elsewhere observed; for example, they appear with considerable regularity up the center of the four chief members of each of the great clusters of columns dividing the nave and aisles; and they commence at a certain height from the ground, nearly uniformly.

Monsieur Didron, of Paris, it seems, has communicated a series of observations on these Marks to the Comite Historique des Arts et Monuments. He has found them at Strasburgh, Spire, Worms, Rheims, Basle, and elsewhere, and believes he can discover in them reference to distinct schools or lodges of Masons. The Marks collected by M. Didron divide themselves, according to his opinion, into two classes, those of the overseers, and those of the men who worked the stones. The Marks of the first class consist generally of monogrammatic characters, and are placed separately on the stones: those of the second class partake more of the nature of symbols, such as shoes, trowels, mallets, etc. It is stated that at Rheims, in one of the portals, the lowest of the stones forming one of the arcades, is marked with a kind of monogrammatic character, and the outline of the sole of a shoe. The stone above it has the same character, and two soles of shoes; the third the same character and three soles and so all around the arcade. The shoe mark he found also at Strasburgh, and nowhere else, and accounts for this by the fact, that parts of the Cathedral of Rheims were executed by Masons fetched from Strasburgh.

The committee either have published, or are about to publish, a set of instructions to their correspondents on this point, with plates of the Marks already collected, in order that they may obtain additional information and means of comparison.

Strengthened by this proceeding on their part in my belief before expressed, that the observation and collection of these Marks may ultimately aid in elucidating the history of the Free Masons, I feel encouraged to bring the subject again before the society, which otherwise I should not have done.

The lamented Mr. Rokewode, in a paper on the dedication and consecration of churches, printed in the twenty-fifth volume of the Archaeologia, observes that "the ancient altar stone, known by the crosses graven in the center and at the angles, is now frequently to be found in our churches, generally applied to sepulchral purposes. The crosses upon it were intended to mark the spots anointed with chrism, — and if I do not mistake, this was the object of the crosses once inlaid with metal, cut in the external walls of some churches, as in the Cathedral of Salisbury, and the Churches of Edindon in Wilts, Cannington in Somersetshire, and Brent Pelham in Herts. It may also be observed, that on one of the Norman Pillars in New Shoreham church, are two Jerusalem crosses, probably graven on the occasion of the dedication."

Mr. Sydney Smirke, in a paper which follows the last quoted, and illustrates it from the church of St. John at Syracuse, refers to a pontifical printed at Rome in 1595, and now in the British Museum, where the Bishop is enjoined to mark with his thumb dipped in the chrism, twelve crosses on the walls of the church and others on the door, and altar. It further provides that these crosses are to be at the height of 7 feet 5 inches above the floor.

I do not quote these observations with the view of showing an immediate connection between any religious ceremonies and the Marks in question. They may, however, be deemed to bear, although slightly, upon the subject; and therefore they are introduced; the more so, too, perhaps because in searching for Marks at Furness Abbey (where they abound), a large cross, 14 inches high, and 14 inches wide, was found, cut on the external face of a stone, at the east end of the church, as represented at the head of this extract.

The Marks of which we are especially speaking, it can perhaps hardly be doubted, were made chiefly to distinguish the work of different individuals. At the present time the man who works a stone (being different from the man who sets it), makes his Mark on the bed or other internal face of it, so that it may be identified. The fact, however, that in the ancient buildings it is only a certain number of the stones which bear symbols, that the Marks found in different countries (although the variety is great), are in many cases identical, and in all have a singular accordance in character, — seems to show that the men who employed them did so by system, and that the system, if not the same in England, Germany, and France, was closely analogous in one country to that of the others.

Moreover, many of the signs are evidently religious and symbolical, and agree fully with our notions of the body of men known as the Free Masons.

With reference to the religious characters of associated Masons in very early times (times much earlier than any of the works already mentioned belong to), I am induced to allude to a curious MS. account of the proceedings of four sculptors who worked "in the name of the Lord." It is in No. 91 of the Arundel MSS. at the British Museum, described as "Sanctorum vitae miracula, et martyria," and is to be found at folie 218, headed, "Claudii Sociumq. ejus." It commences thus: "At the time Diocletian was Emperor, various metallic substances were cut by the Pannonians from the mountains in his presence. It came to pass that when he had collected all the workers in metal, he found amongst those endowed with great skill in art certain men named Claudius, Castor, Simphorianus, and Nicostratus, who were wonderful in the art of masonry. These men were secretly Christians, observing the commandments of the Lord, and, whatsoever work in the art of sculpture they performed, they did it in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Further on, it proceeds: "At the command of Diocletian, a porphyritic shell with pomegrantes and foliage, was perfected by the hands of Claudius, Simphorianus, Castor, and Nicostratus, and they were brought under the notice of the Emperor. And he was pleased with all things, and made them many presents. Then said Diocletian, I desire that some columns with foliated capitals should be carved out of the porphyritic mountain under the direction of Claudius, Simphorianus, and Castor. When the philosophers heard this they were vehemently indignant because the command of Diocletian provoked them. Coming, however, to the mountain, they marked out the portion of stone which should be cut away. Then the artificers in masonry prayed, and made the sign of the cross of Christ, and giving directions and setting to work, they began to cut the stone for the neck of the columns, and they worked at it daily for three months. When, however, one wonderful column had been produced with perfect art, the philosophers said to Claudius and the others: Ye who are enriched with gifts, give your skill to the shaping of another column. Wherefore, replied they, do ye wish to learn the art from us? Still, in the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in whom we trust, we will shape this other column like the first. And giving their labor with the utmost diligence, within twenty-six days they had cut the other column. Then the philosophers indignantly exclaimed: These mysterious words can only pertain to art-magical."

The second article is a letter to this journal from one who signs himself "J. H. J." and is dated from Steam Marble Works, Great Patrick Street, Belfast, Sept. 18, 1843. It has an interesting bearing on the antiquity of the Masons' "Mark."

Sir: I — have been a subscriber to "The Builder" since its commencement. I have watched its progress carefully, and read it with pleasure. On its appearance, I certainly thought you were, like a great many others, pretending to be of the craft, but really I do honestly think you are one of us and as such, I heartily and sincerely wish you success.

Being bred a Mason, I was forcibly struck with an article in No. 30 entitled, "Masons' Marks," in which the writer identifies their uses as belonging to the ancient order of Freemasons. This has been long my opinion, and I know a great number of the old Marks to bear a close approximation thereto, for when a boy, carrying the tools to the smithy, I could almost tell difference between a good and bad Mason by the appearance of his tools. I am, however, in possession some facts regarding Masons' Marks which I shall relate, and if you think them worth your notice, you may make what use you please of them.

About fifty years ago, the late Earl of Bristol, Lord Bishop of Derry, built a splendid episcopal palace at a place called the Ballysculion, in the County Derry; it was scarcely finished when he died, and it was taken down and the materials sold. Among other splendid specimens of masonry (for he had carvers from Italy, etc.), he brought entire, out of the ruins of Herculaneum, ten beautiful columns of Sienna Marble of the Corinthian order, with statuary, capitals and bases, 13 feet high in the shaft and 18 inches diameter; they were of a pale kind of Sienna with streaks, and very handsome, but the gallery in which he intended placing them not being finished, they lay till the cases were rotted about them; no person knew the value, and about seventeen years ago the remains of them were purchased from the bishop's heirs for a small sum, by Mr. Alexander, of Portglenon, and I manufactured them into columns and antae for his hall, and chimney-pieces for his house.

In examining them I found "Masons' Marks," I dare say nearly 3,000 years old! They must have be about that, or older. It is a fact, known to Masons this day, that in working a column, the Mason puts his Mark on the front of the head, to denote the handsomest and soundest front, no matter whether it is a diagonal line or no, and this I found invariably the case. The marks were generally Greek letters, but four of them this Mark was quite plain, with the addition of the lower score on two of them. The Greek Delta was, I think, on three, and different Greek characters on the rest. I also found patches inserted with cement, the identical kind we use at present, for I had it analyzed, except it being mixed with the reddish part of the Sienna, pounded. The columns were one-third up from the bottom the same diameter as the low cincture, and were exceedingly well and true worked, the Scotia being beautifully hollowed; but a strange fact still I have to relate, that on the ends were the mark of a hack tool. Now, I remember the first introduction of such a tool here about twenty years ago by myself, to work Galway marble, since which it has bee used for Stanty stones, and is considered a great improvement, so that the use of it must have been know at that time; in corroboration of this, I read some years ago, I think in the Lancet, of a surgeon's shop or house having been discovered in Herculaneum, and on the body of the occupant were his surgical instruments, one of which was a fac-simile of an instrument for which a patent had been secured but a short time ago for cutting in fistula, or some such disorder.

I remain, Mr. Editor,

Your Obedient Servant,

J. H. J.

(To be concluded)

* * *


By Bro. Julius F. Sachse, Grand Librarian, Pennsylvania

Reprinted from "History of Masonic Knights Templar of Pennsylvania," by permission of R∴ Bro. John S. Sell, Grand Master of Masons in Pennsylvania.

IN ENGLAND, according to Brother W. B. McLeod Moore, Grand Prior of Canada, during the eighteenth century, the Chivalric Order was formally introduced and adopted by the Masonic Body after the establishment of the present Symbolic system, the object being to complete and cement the moral code of Freemasonry with the pure doctrine of Christianity, taught in the Chivalric Order of the Knights Templar, requiring all Freemasons joining the Order to profess a firm belief in the Holy Trinity, the basis on which it was founded. If any branch departs from the Trinitarian belief and test, it is no longer a Templar Body, let it call itself what it will; even as a Masonic Body, which denies God, ceases to be Masonic, a belief in God being the first great unalterable landmark, without which no Masonry exists; and just so a belief in the Trinity, holy and indivisible, is the chief and indestructible landmark of the true Templar Order, without which, in spite of all sophistry and special pleading, no Templary can exist.

The profession it was required of the candidate to make was: "I attest that I believe in God, in the persons of the Trinity, and in all other articles of the catholic faith, I believe there is but one God, one faith, one baptism, one church; and that in death, when the soul is departed from the body, there is but one judge of good and evil, this is my belief, this is the belief of the Order of the Temple."

As evidence of the conferring of the degree of Knights Templar in Great Britain, we have a skeleton ritual, partially in cipher, undoubtedly of eighteenth century origin. This ritual was ascribed to the year 1786 by its late owner Major Irwin, the well-known antiquary of Bristol. For Ireland we have still earlier and no less convincing evidence in the expository Address to the Divine Being, dated 1784, and prefixed to the MS. Statutes, Rules, and Ordinances for the Government of the Most High and Illustrious Order of High Knight Templars of the Province of Munster, November, 1793. [1]

In our Archives we have the two following English Templar certificates showing that the orders were conferred under the Warrant of an English Craft lodge at Leicester, No. 91, on the Registry of England. This is the only early evidence that we have showing the conferring of the Red Cross together with the order of the Temple under a Craft Warrant.

An Assembly of the Knights of the RED CROSS held under the Sanction of Warrant No. 91 Leicester and on the Registry of England

These are to certify that the Bearer hereof Our Trusty and well beloved Brother Sr. William Terry was by us Installed & Dubb'd a Knight of the Antient and Honorable Order of the Red Cross and has to the Utmost of his power Justly supported the Dignity thereof

We therefore Recommend him as a Worthy Valiant Knight

Given under our hands & Seal of our Assembly at our Assembly Room in Leicester this 19th day of January 1801

Robt. Binder, K
Willm BROWN Gr. W—
JOHN HILL, Secretary


By the C: G: and Grand Wardens of Lodge No. 91 Leicester and on the Registry of England.

We do hereby Certify that the Bearer hereof Our Trusty and well Beloved Brother Sr. William Terry was by us installed and Dubb'd a Knight of the Most Noble and Right worshipful Order of Knights Templars Knight Hospitalor and Knight of Malta he having with fortitude and due honour Justly Supported the Amazing Trials attending his admission

We therefore Recommend him as a worthy honest faithful and Vallient Brother

GIVEN undre our hands and Seal of our Lodge at our Lodge Room in Leicester this 19th Day of January 1801

JOHN HILL, G. Secretary.

  1. A. Q. C., Volume XXVI, p. 56.

* * *


By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan

Faith as to why and whence and where,
Lifting the heart away from care;
Sowing e'en while the life receives
Back for its own, the golden sheaves.

Hope as the anchor to the all,
Holding the heart what'er befall;
Giving its urge the right to lead
All the way through the realm of need.

Love as the soul of things, — the prize
Setting all values neath the skies;
The angel upon whom all must wait
Till he swings for us the mystic gate.

* * *

When shall all men's good be each man's rule, and universal peace be like a shaft of light across the land?

— Tennyson.

* * *

Every human heart is human.

— Longfellow.

* * *



IN THE BELIEF in the existence of God that many men of many minds and many climes hold to, Freemasonry finds the one abiding bond of union for which she has a reasonable belief that it will outdo time. Hence, belief in God is the sovereign authoritative tenet of the Institution; the fundamental dogma of the order. This belief in God, Masons believe to be a primary conviction of the human mind and is arrived at not only by virtue of the deepest instinct of human nature itself, but by the sincerest reflection and philosophic reasoning of which that man is capable. God, then, is postulated as the first great cause. Even as things cannot hang unless they hang onto some thing, so Masons believe that the universe itself, re vealing in its most general aspects, plan and purpose, indicates an author and a supreme architect behind it. This belief in intelligence as being the cause of What is, to us, our universe — let us reemphasize from a strictly modern philosophic standpoint — is not only the wise conclusion of philosophers and sages, but is the first profound conviction that men's minds, in early dawn when they began to reason, first cherished. This is the two-fold conclusion in brief, instinctive and rational, that is involved in conception of God in the minds of Freemasons universally.

The relationship of God as Father is the great. motivating force that actuates them in striving for the worldwide dominion of Peace and Goodwill.

An ancient philosopher, Philo, regarded God as Father because he had created us, but the view that finds its focus in Masonry, and as it is deducted from the men of the variety of faiths that kneel at its altars, is that God is 'Father, not only because he made us but because the laws of moral empire indicate a ruling conscience, and that the life of God as it is apprehended through the lives of the wisest and noblest of the race that has lived, reveals that He loves us. The tokens of such love — if wisdom, knowledge, and love be in any wise indications of God's nature — He has not confined to any particular people. "God," saith the Christian's gospel, "maketh the sun to shine on the good and the evil; on the just and on the unjust," and in that last great awakening, according to the wondrous vision of last things, which is to be cherished as the choicest summing up of the judgment of God upon the lives and deeds of men, we would discover men coming from the east and the west and sharing the privileges of eternity, while the arrogant and selfish, who themselves had claimed all knowledge, would be excluded. Masonry, then, does not hold to any arrogant claim regarding the religious genius of any particular people or sect, but recognizes light and truth as it emanates from the lives of men everywhere, past or present.

Long and painful has been the struggle of our poor humanity that has made us conscious that God is one; sovereign over all, and that there are no other gods but him. And while this indicates immeasurable achievement for men, men the world over have not yet discovered any ground for argument upon the character of God, save as they recognize his universal Fatherhood. It is in this recognition of Fatherhood that Masonry gathers men together, that they may the better work for human happiness in a bonded relationship, in which they hold to one thing in common, rather than in divided relationships, where disagreements forever defeat noble purposes.

Belief in God is reasonably and naturally followed in a worship of Him by most men, and it is in this worship of Him that the differences abounding cause men to be divided into sects, cults, and churches. That all men would agree upon one way of worship and adoring God may be devoutly wished, but intolerance and bigotry are the distinguishing marks of any who endeavor to coerce others into believing as they do. Hence, the genius of Masonry is found in its permitting diversity in unity, in things relative to faith and practice in the worship of God. As far as its purpose is apprehended by its followers, it is to enjoin men every where, that the creature owes a duty to the Creator, and that that duty is most worthily revealed by imitating that beneficence of heart toward his kind which he apprehends God to be continually disposing toward him. In the light of this, the preservation of the freedom of worship is one of the glorious purposes of the Masonic Institution, and since it has zealously in the past preserved this freedom of worship, to the enhancing of the happiness of men everywhere, its intention to perpetuate this freedom is its one clear, prophetic pronouncement as regards life today.

In the light of the conception of the Fatherhood of God held to by the Freemasons, it at once becomes imperative that we inquire how, in terms of civic duty we can acquaint ourselves with all that is involved in such belief, so as to manifest the practical bearing of such a doctrine upon our lives and conduct. We are well aware of the contempt that so frequently finds expression among Masons for what appears as religious Phariseeism. Too often this observation has been made while absolutely neglecting what may be regarded by the profane as Phariseeism in us. The very ordinances and outward observances which we have condemned in others, too frequently we have been guilty of ourselves. The instruction acquired through the ritual has claimed the assent of our minds, but too frequently it has failed to find interpretation in our daily lives. Let us reflect on this. There is little virtue in doing things for others because we are compelled by obligations to do them, but when we do things calculated to enrich and bless others, whether they are legally bound to us or not, and further, when we do them from pure or impersonal consideration of hope of gain, but for the very love of doing good itself, then we are making tangible confession without verbal utterance of our belief in God as the Father, and we are dealing with our kind in a way that we believe He deals with all of us.

Masonry would devolve into a narrow, secular institution should it fail to apprehend the teaching that is most deeply imbedded in its very constitution. The universality of brotherhood is emphasized when the variety of religious confession and racial distinction is represented within its body, and as we would do for those within the precincts of the Temple, because they are there recognized in the bonds of brotherhood, so should we do for the world, for their being there is but symbolic of world brotherhood, and is intended — if symbolism has any virtue to impress indelibly upon our minds and hearts any lesson — our obligation to love and serve all mankind.

Religious intolerance finds its genesis when God's Fatherhood is regarded as a limited thing.

Masonry seeks to instruct men in the laws of moral empire which, ruling over the lives of men, will bring them into harmonious relationship known as The Universal Brotherhood, that has been the devout prayer of all noble men in whom the light of God has shone, since the dawn of time. And its wisdom is amply justified in its bringing together men of the great religions of earth on a common meeting ground, where the belief in God is the band that binds, but where they make their separate interpretations of the character of God subsidiary to the great thing that each subscribes to, and which stated simply, they discern to be the will of God.

When the great congress of religions met in Chicago in 1893 it was the grave concern of some as to how the great gathering should be opened, and what religious representative should have the preferential honor. Finally it was happily agreed that what is commonly known in the world as the Lord's Prayer was an expression appropriate to the common feelings and religious emotions represented there. And if we are to make manifest the great key-note of that prayer that links men in the great common cause of serving humanity after declaration of their belief in God as the universal Father, it is the utterance asking that the will of that Father shall be accomplished on earth, and that his kingdom shall be realized upon the earth. The ascription that "God is Father," finds itself a complimentary part in the brotherhood that men evince when they recognize God as Father.

Having elucidated at length on the Masonic conception of God, and an unqualified recognition of his nearness to the Hindu as well as the Christian, and to emphasize truly that God must care as much for a naked cannibal as for the most cultured or refined, it behooves us to investigate what effect this doctrine has upon our practical life and well-being in the State. To make it yet more concrete, we must speak not only of "the State," but of these United States. Religious liberty is one of the foundation stones upon which this Republic is built, but strange as it may seem, we are yet but beginning to apprehend the true significance of religious liberty. A dispassionate analysis of our country will reveal many sad things that have brought misery in their wake; arising generally from the subsequent bigotry of those who sought these shores and claimed for themselves religious liberty. The persecuted — history is not slow in revealing to us — have too often been transformed into persecutors. It is then. indeed, a gleam of the divine that is reflected in the Constitution of the United States when it bespeaks for the maintenance of religious toleration and the lasting preservation of religious liberty.

As Freemasons in these United States and in view of the thing that is guaranteed unto us by the Constitution we must be on our guard against any religious sect that arrogantly ascribes to itself the holding of the only true and final religious knowledge and author ity. The right to elect or damn has never been bequeathed to any man or any organization, and religions as all other things of time seem to have had their rise and wane according to the proportion of good or evil that they rendered the world. Bigotry and fanaticism, which has too frequently resolved itself into cupidity, cruelty and persecution, has ever been the chief characteristic of religions that lost the vision of toleration, and in the toleration of religious differences by those who subscribe to the one great doctrine of Belief in God as the Father of men Masonry seeks to inspire men to labor and to pray for the divine event when Brother hood will grace the earth.

Robert Tipton.

* * *


Bro. Geo. L. Sherman, D. C.

Masonic tradition informs me that it was the custom, morning and evening, when the ranks first and last rays touched the mountain tops to call the builders of the Temple to and from their labors by a trumpet.

In olden time, in distant clime,
At early dawn and eve of day,
When gilding rays of passing sun
Turned purple haze to golden blaze,
On mountain top, to men would come
A silv'ry note: 'Twas Hiram's call
Down pillared aisle and stately hall,
Past winding stair and waterfall,
O'er checkered floor with blazing star,
To topmost walls; then flung afar
To timbered mount and quarry wall.

Long, long the years since Hiram called
But down the corridors of time
Is ringing clear, to ears that hear,
That far-flung, sweet, and mystic chime.
'Tis calling now to duties great;
Yea, greater than of those who wrought
In olden time on temple walls
Or with the pagan strove and fought.

Attune thine ears! O hark ye well!
Ye Sons of Light of later days;
The ashlars rough to thy hands laid
Are thine own souls; and he that prays
At Cryptic shriner — as Hiram did —
When vaulting sun at balance stands,
Will hear the Builder's call and know
The squaring touch of Master hands.

* * *


Edited by Bro. Robert Tipton

SOME time ago we were privileged to read an essay dealing with village life in England six hundred years ago. The author had gleaned facts relative to the people of this particular village whose history he was investigating, from the parish records. His labor throughout revealed the marks of patient industry and exhaustive research.

It requires no little imagination to realize that the ancestry of a people who have acquired a marked degree of culture, refinement, and progressive enterprise, could have possibly lived in such mean circumstances as he discovered. Of the people referred to there were no doubt some whose homes were near those of the lineal ancestry of George Washington, and a stretch of the imagination would make it possible to conclude that probably some of these shared the impoverished condition described as the lot of the common people. For example, we find that of Washington's ancestors, one was the first lay proprietor of the Manor of Sulgrave, suggesting a possible one-time emerging from a lower into a higher rank where respectable merchandising or some such vocation received more than paltry recognition.

Dr. Jessopp, our investigator, describing the conditions of that period, writes thus as the result of his findings:

"As for the houses themselves, they were squalid enough for the most part. The manor house was often built of stone, when stone was to be had, then of flint, as in so many of our church towers. The poorer houses were dirty hovels, run up 'anyhow,' sometimes covered with turf, sometimes with thatch. None of them had chimneys. Six hundred years ago houses with chimneys were at least as rare as houses heated by hot-water pipes are now. Moreover, there were no brick houses. It is a curious fact that the art of making bricks seems to have been lost in England for some hundreds of years. The laborer's dwelling had no windows; the hole in the roof which let out the smoke rendered windows unnecessary, and even in the houses of the well-to-do, glass windows were rare. In many cases oiled linen cloth served to admit a feeble semblance of light, and to keep out the rain. The laborer's fire was in the middle of his house; he and his wife and children huddled round it, sometimes grovelling in the ashes, and going to bed meant flinging themselves down upon the straw which served them as mattress and feather bed, exactly as it does to the present day in the gypsy's tent in our byways. The laborer's only light by night was the smouldering fire. Why should he burn a rushlight when there was nothing to look at, and reading was an accomplishment which few laboring men were masters of?"

Compare now, if you please, the following, which will give an interesting light on some of the perplexing problems that the civilized world is confronting after the Great War. From the comparison it will be readily seen that of the millions inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula, the great majority are almost on a par with those English rurals of six hundred years ago. A recent study of "The Balkans" by Professor Sloan discover for us an analogous condition depicted in the piece of historical research by Dr. Jessopp. In Professor Sloan's work which so remarkably sets forth the conditions under which men live in southeastern Europe today, we read particularly of a Montenegrin home. A visitor to Montenegro has a sense of that country's bitter poverty which the people themselves do not feel. As was said of Greece, the estimate of the tourist de pends on his point of view.

"Amid the wild surrounding people, Montenegro is in a state of advanced civilization, a model and a stimulus. But a Montenegrin country home! Four stone walls and a roof, thatch or slate, with no chimneys, the smoke oozing out through every cranny of the eaves, the unglazed windows and open doors. Within is a clay floor, with shouldering embers in the middle, and wide couches round about; the cattle are in a lean-to at the end, with their hoard of manure cherished like the treasure it is."

Some houses are better, some worse than this faithful description, but the average is very low. Squalid enough ancestry is here depicted, for so many of our twentieth century people have attained a degree of comfort and prosperity that is indeed enviable.

We are naturally always interested in finding the factors responsible for the generic movements, or the person responsible for what today must be regarded as wonderful transformation. For during these days of much talking about interdependence, organization and cooperation, little or no credit is ascribed to the effort of the individual, and the tendency is to a general forgetfulness of his potency. The chief concern seems to be to insist that all men are but relative in their usefulness, and in that last summing up are but cogs in a vast machine. Because of this it will do us good occasionally if we but revert to those wise sages who grace the pages of history, who have emphasized in unforgettable ways the value of the individual.

Let us turn to Carlisle, and we may read something like this relative to those who are sponsors for great movements in human progress:

"In all epochs of the world's history, we shall find the Great Man to have been the indispensable savior of his epoch; the lightning, without which the fuel never would have burnt. The History of the World, I said already, is the Biography of Great Men."

A re-reading of the Heroes impressed the following quotation which seemed to us eminently worth considering. It is what Carlyle offers in regard to those puny souls who are forever delighting in disparaging their kind, and belittling the noble efforts of great men. "No sadder proof," says he, "can be given by a man of his own littleness than disbelief in great men."

Our search then, for the factor that transforms society and enhances the interest of men, will be the search for the individual. That individual may not always be discoverable, even as in the case of the English village; much difficulty would be encountered in the endeavor to ascertain the single individual whose aspiration and success became a beacon light of promise in such darkness. "Some there be which have no memorial." Such was the observation of an ancient writer.

If one desires to indulge further in the perusal of such an interesting field of literary exploitation, we would covet for him the reading of those masterful biographies of great men whose lives and deeds have been preserved for us. In so many instances the analysis of the context would make clear for us the dictum of Carlyle; that the history of the world is the history of the Great Men who have lived in it.

* * *

We are today deeply impressed in the post-war studies of influences that were at work generating the tendencies that made for war, in discovering the remarkable power wielded over thinking youth by those writers who so trenchantly enunciated a philosophy for which they were either sponsors or strong devotees. To reflect that Nietzsche and Frietschke were potent factors in the shaping of the thought that made Germany a militaristic nation serves formidably in bringing to the fore the power and influence of the individual. To enhance this conception of the influence of such individuals, it may be interesting to reflect on the following quotation from General Bernhardhi's recent book, "War in the Future," which in no small degree accentuates the belief that the German militaristic aspirations are not yet completely buried.

"I know that the course of polities changes; that the moment will come, all too soon, when there will be need of us on one side or the other; that, when it comes, things will turn out favorably for our restoration. I hope that the Germans, who now seem sunk in selfishness and the pursuit of pleasure, will stand up again like men; that there will arise a purified nation, worthy of its great forefathers, able to look upon war as it really is.

"As for me, I shall hardly live to see this great moment. My life-course has been run helping build up the nation which now lies in ruin. But I write confidently for the future. Men of a day yet to come will be capable of appreciating that which I here set down, and my words, which until now have always fallen on unheeding ears, will prove to be seeds that do not fall upon thorns. With that belief I lay down my pen for the present.

"Germany will arise again: she still has a great future before her!"

Our heightened interest in these matters prompted us a while ago to write to two of our friends asking them just what biographies of their reading had appealed and influenced them most. The two friends were in walks of life widely divergent; one being a professor of literature, the other a lawyer who exercises a notable influence in political circles. The friendship of these men, by the way, include some of the most notable people in this land. Ardently American and jealous for the future of America, I solicited their biographical interests, fully supposing that they would recognize that the reading of a country youth was the most potent factor in the shaping of life and destiny, if the formidable strides made by Germany culminating in its entrance into the world war could be accepted in any degree as a reliable criterion.

One friend, who is particularly interested in statecraft, wrote us and said that the biographies which he considered most powerful and stimulating were: First, "The Lives" by Plutarch; Second, Froude's "Caesar"; Third, Herndon's "Lincoln"; Fourth, Lockhart's "Napoleon."

The suggestion made us turn again to a re-reading of these notable works. We could readily appreciate that a perusal of "The Lives," reflecting the personality, influence and character of those men of remoter times, could be a vitally enriching thing, intellectually, to the youth of today. Even so Froude's biography of Caesar could be stimulating and thought-provoking.

We here wish to bring attention to one of the remarkable paragraphs that we ran across in the rereading of Froude's "Caesar." At the time of the breaking down of the Republic, due to being burdened by extravagancies and luxuries of the privileged, the only redemption possible seemed to be through the efforts of the stout Yeomanry who had been uncontaminated by the offenses and abuses of those who lived in the cities. The paragraph referred to caused us to reflect that the conditions described by Froude were in measure prototype of the conditions that we face today, and we too felt an avowed conviction that the regeneration of our own times lies largely with those who live upon the farms and in the rural districts, far from the madness and social insanity that is most eloquently symbolized in what is designated as the "Jazz."

Let us, if you please, place side by side a quotation from Froude's Caesar, a short article by a recent writer in The Living Age on "Jazz."

"Redemption," says Froude, "if redemption was to be hoped for, could come only from the free citizens in the country districts, whose manner and whose minds were uncontaminated, in whom the ancient habits of life still survived who still believed in the gods, and who were contended to follow the wholesome round of honest labor."

Now read the quotation on "Jazz," which we suggest to be wonderfully symbolic of the insanity of our times:

"Screams, moans, crashes, blows, cowbells, and tin pans fought desperately with each other, something like a tugboat siren cried ghastly at the night, and a booming bass drum carried one's mind to the kraals of Africa. 'A social evening for the young folk,' said someone indulgently, 'it helps to keep the young people in the church.'

"Now I am not going to raise my hands in pious horror at jazz music. Such music is the order of this barbarian day, and the minority can do little but endure. I cannot say that I admire it myself, for the truth is that my soul loathes it, yet when I find myself in the centre of a jazz jamboree, I listen with no bored, snobbish insouciance, but with what I imagine to be serene toleration."

So much, if you please, of soliloquies produced by reading of Froude's Caesar. Reflecting on the suggestion of our friend that Lockhart's Napoleon would be stimulating, we were reminded of the idolatrous worship of the late Crown Prince of Germany, that paragon of militarism. Likewise there comes to us a recollection that some noted lecturer ventured to suggest at the beginning that the reason for the intensification of the militaristic spirit in Germany was occasioned by the German government, when they recognized that the young German students becoming tired of the preachments of Nietzsche, and looking around for another teacher, had turned to our own good Walt Whitman. We can readily understand how war would have been impossible should the young Germans ever have succumbed to the glorious gospel about the wider democracy of Walt Whitman.

Therefore, we can readily appreciate the virtue of reading such biographies as Herndon's Lincoln. May we not with assurance assert that to keep the American spirit alive one must become saturated with the idealisms of those who best have interpreted America?

We have heard in recent years a certain beratement of the West by the East on account of what they designate as a lack of what antiquity and culture gives. There is a broad, beautiful, unconventionality about the western way; it seems to bespeak the vast distances, the high mountains and wide rivers that we have to deal with in America, and the unconventionality and the charm of these things seems to reflect itself in such great souls as Abraham Lincoln. Herndon has given him to America as he knew him, in this biography, so as to make him the enchanted one to which young America can ever resort for inspiration in real Americanism.

Knowing Lincoln one can read about all the emperors, kings, and potentates that the world has even seen and yet keep sanely American, and the keeping sanely American of our younger generation of thinkers is going to prove itself the great barrier against that tendency among us to Europeanize America.

* * *


THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.

The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.


Will you please inform me through THE BUILDER if Senator Hiram Johnson, of California, is a Mason, and also what is his religion?

J. F. K., Ohio.

Hiram W. Johnson is a member of Union Lodge No. 58, of Sacramento, Calif; Sacramento Chapter No. 3, Royal Arch Masons; Sacramento Council Royal and Select Masters; Sacramento Commandery No. 2, Knights Templar, and Islam Temple, A.A.O.N.M.S.

The family attends the Presbyterian church.

* * *


Will you kindly advise me whether or not Mr. F. W. Galbraith, Jr., Commander of the American Legion. is a member of the Fraternity?

C. R. A., Montana.

Brother Galbraith is a member of Hoffner Lodge No. 253, F. & A. M., of Cincinnati, Ohio, and of the Scottish Rite bodies in Columbus, Ohio.

* * *


In England and America the letter G is openly suspended in the lodge. Can you inform me as to the regulation or practice in this respect in countries such as France, Italy Spain and Portugal, where the letter D might be termed its equivalent?

I refer to bodies working in the so-called York Rite, and not to the Grand Orients.

J. W. McC., Mississippi.

Mackey says that the letter G, first adopted by the English ritual makers, has without remark been transferred to the Masonry of the Continent, and is to be found as a symbol in all the systems of Germany, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and every other country where Masonry has been introduced; although in Germany only can it serve, as in England and America, for an intelligent symbol.

* * *



Some of us belong to famous lodges, but I doubt if many of us can claim such fame for ourselves as was gained by "Star of the East" of Rawul Pindi in India. I have copied part of a letter which I have just read, thinking it might be of interest to readers of THE BUILDER.

"In a recent letter to NATURE (Oct. 21, 1920), H. H. Godwin-Austin, referring to conditions in India just before the Mutiny, in 1857, writes:

"'To give an idea of the reports then in circulation, one of my servants, on returning from the City where he had gone to make purchases, came at once to ask me whether it was true that the Queen of England was sending out to India an army of several lakhs of men to force the population of India to become Christians. I told him it was nonsense, and asked him where he had heard it. He said two Faqirs (religious mendicants) were preaching on the invasion in the streets of the City. The story had evidently made an impression on him, and it led to my having a conversation with another native, in which I heard for the first time of momiai, and was told that we sahibs made it. He gave me a very circumstantial account; that children were kidnapped, hung up by the heels, heads downward, and an incision made in the breast from which flowed the wonderful substance which gave us so much power. To prove his words, my informant, who was a Kashmir resident in Rawul Pindi, said he could show me the very bungalow in which all this was done.

"'This turned out to be the Masonic lodge 'The Star in the East,' I think it is called situated in the cantonment of Rawul Pindi the 'Jadu Ghur' or mystery house, as it is always called by the natives. In my wanderings in the Kashmir Himalaya up to 1863 the story of the 'Jadu Ghur' would crop up. It was thoroughly known in Kashmir, on into Ladak, and extended, I believe, into Central Asia, wherever Kashmir merchants are to be found.

"'I much fear my explanation of what is done in a Masonic lodge, and of what its use is, did little to alter whatever was in the mind of my informant. I do know that these impossible tales carry enormous weight for evil among the mass of the people, both male and female.'"

— W. Harvey McNairn, Canada.

* * *


The S. C. Citadel, built in this city sometime about 1830, has outgrown its present quarters, though very ample, and is preparing another building to accommodate 1200 students. This institution, one of the few in the United States, is quite noted. Commissions in the United States Army are given to its graduates. We mourn many of its boys who fell in France.

When the cornerstone of the Greater Citadel was laid on Thanksgiving Day by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, the historical Grand Master's jewel, known as the La Fayette jewel, was worn by Grand Master, S. T. Lanham. This famous jewel, which is now a precious possession of Friendship Lodge No. 9, A. F. M., was worn by General LaFayette in Kershaw Lodge No. 29, at Camden, in the year 1825, and was given by General La Fayette to Past Master A. DeLeon, and in the year 1891 it was presented to Friendship Lodge by Past Master H. H. DeLeon.

The historical La Fayette trowel was also used in the cornerstone laying ceremonies.

The United States Congress, in the year 1824, invited the Marquis de La Fayette to visit this country as its guest, which he gladly accepted. Early in the following year his itinerary landed him in South Carolina, having come, the beloved and honored guest of the State to discharge a special duty in behalf of a war comrade. South Carolina called him to place the cornerstone of the memorial erected to the memory of his bosom friend, Major General Baron De Kalb. This episode, no doubt, was the incentive that led Congress to extend and the Marquis to accept the invitation.

While in this State the Marquis went to the town of Camden to fill an appointment made with the citizens there to place the cornerstone of the monument erected in honor of De Kalb, who fell mortally wounded, pierced by eleven bullets, at the head of his command of Delaware and Maryland troops, in the endeavor to retard the advance of Cornwallis' army. La Fayette also commanded a force of American troops near Camden.

— A. W. Hirsch, South Carolina.

* * *


Brother James H. Sterling, P. M. of Chesapeake Lodge No. 147, Crisfield, Maryland, has compiled the following account of the oldest Mason in Maryland, Brother John Sterling, one of the founders of Chesapeake Lodge.

Captain John Sterling's Masonic record is without doubt unique. For seventy-two years he has been a faithful and conscientious member of the greatest fraternal organization in the world.

In early life, as a sailor, when voyages were determined by weeks and months, instead of by days as at present, and when the opportunities for attending Masonic lodge meetings were few and far between, when there were good excuses for a member to gradually withdraw from active participation in the work, Captain John's chief pleasure was to be present whenever possible at the meetings of Manhattan and Ocean Lodges. Nothing but his unflagging interest in the advancement of the Order would account for his unbroken record of seventy-two years active membership.

Today, hale and hearty, at the age of ninety-two he frequently attends the stated meetings of Chesapeake Lodge, and is as much interested in the advancement of the organization as he was in his younger days.

Captain John's record as a Mason dates back to the forties. At that time he was a deep sea sailor, captain of a vessel plying between New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and the ports of the Southern Seas.

His application for membership in the Order was made to Manhattan Lodge No. 62, F. & A. M., of New York City, and he was made a Master Mason and admitted as a member of that lodge on February 7th, 1847. He remained a member of Manhattan Lodge for about one year, when he secured a demit for the purpose of becoming a member of Ocean Lodge No. 156, of the same city, of which one of his friends, a ship broker, Alfred F. Thorne, was Master. Captain John was affiliated with this lodge for nearly twenty years, and his description of some of the sessions he attended while a member there are unusually interesting, particularly to members of the Fraternity.

On May 3rd, 1869, Captain Sterling obtained a demit from Ocean Lodge for the purpose of helping to organize Chesapeake Lodge No. 147, of Crisfield, Maryland. Captain John Sterling's brother, Captain Christopher Sterling, and Captain Dow Lawson also withdrew at the same time from Ocean Lodge, and were charter members of Chesapeake Lodge. The first demit obtained from Manhattan Lodge in New York more than seventy years ago, and the demit obtained from Ocean Lodge in 1869, are possessed by Chesapeake Lodge, and are perfectly preserved.

To a life of great usefulness in many directions, the distinction of having been a worthy and active Mason for more years than an ordinary lifetime holds for a majority of persons, is the crowning glory of a good man's life.

It is an honor to have as a brother such a man as Captain John Sterling, and it is a greater honor for Chesapeake Lodge, in that one of its founders has lived to see and to enjoy the enormous advancement that has been its portion since its inception

— Benj. H. Sterling, Maryland.

* * *


I am interested in reading the short biographies of eminent men who were Masons, by Brother Baird, which are now appearing in THE BUILDER, and believe that these articles are much appreciated by all of your readers.

I have noted many interesting items of Masonic history in the pages of THE BUILDER and it possibly might be of interest to the members of the Society to learn something of a quaint and interesting book which recently came into my possession. It is a book of 382 pages, printed in old style English, called "The Pocket Companion and History of Freemasonry," published in London in 1764 for R. Baldwin, W. Johnston, B. Law & Co., and J. Scott.

The book contains a history of Masonry from the Creation to the Flood, from the Flood to the building of Solomon's Temple, and so on through various phases until the date of publication. There is a frontispiece with King Solomon in the chair. My copy is a third edition, greatly enlarged throughout, and revised and corrected. It contains not only chapters dealing with the origin, progress and the (then) state of Masonry, but also an abstract of the laws, constitutions, customs, charges, orders and regulations for the instruction and conduct of the brethren; a confutation of Dr. Plots false insinuations; an apology occasioned by the persecution of Masons in the Canton of Berne, and in the Pope's dominions; the original papal edict against Masonry, and a very comprehensive reply to the same.

It has also interesting addresses by famous Masons of the day, and a collection of songs to be sung at Masonic gatherings. It deals with the appointment of Provincial Grand Masters in certain of our States, and has a list of the following lodges in America:

  1. Norfolk in Virginia.
  2. St. John's Lodge No. 2, New York.
  3. Boston in New England.
  4. Beaufort Port Royal, Charles Town (as written).
  5. The Union Lodge, a Masters' Lodge and St. Marks Lodge, all of South Carolina.
  6. A lodge in Savannah, Georgia.
  7. A lodge in Wilmington, on Cape Fear River, in North Carolina.
  8. A lodge in York Town, Virginia.

One interesting section of the book deals with certain questions, with answers to the same, concerning the mystery of Masonry, written by the hand of King Henry the Sixth of the name, "and faithfully copied by me, (1) John Leyland, Antiquarius, by the command of (2) his highness." In a footnote we read that John Leland was appointed by King Henry the Eighth, at the dissolution of the monasteries, to search for and save such books and records as were valuable among them. He was a man of great labors and industry.

The book is extremely interesting, and although the backs have gone, it is otherwise intact. I shall be very glad to supply any item of interest from its pages to Masons.

— Fred J. Kitt, Ohio.

* * *



The Fraternal Forum in the April, 1920, number of THE BUILDER is most interesting and although you invite comment, I would not so venture except for what seems a serious omission as to one side of the argument.

Unquestionably the great weight of Masonic opinion will coincide with that of the majority of the contributors to the Forum. That is to say, any civic activity of a lodge, as a lodge, should be approached with more than ordinary caution. A Mason of a past generation phrased it thus, "While Freemasonry exerts a powerful influence against spiritual and civil despotism, she must not organize against them and enter into a formal and organized contest. She must ever recollect that her mission is one of influence and not of power." That influence, it is true, proceeds from the Mason as an individual and will be effective, in very large measure, by just the amount of inspiration in and spirit of Masonry that the lodge is able to transmit to its members.

On the other hand, should lodge participation in civic affairs be advisable is there not at least one pathway properly "lighted by the golden rays of truth" and which may be safely pursued?

All jurisdictions have to some extent recognized the duties of the Craft to the sons of Masons, and in turn their right to certain privileges in the father's lodge. On some of the old English tracing boards there appears a working tool called a Lewis — a "cramp of metal" by means of which large stones were raised. It was the symbol of strength. This term was later applied to the son of a Mason. He was a Lewis (to the French, a louveteau) in that he was his father's strength in declining years.

This principle of the Lewis has received greater recognition abroad than here. In our country, however, George Washington is said to have been made a Mason before he was twenty-one years old, because he was a Lewis. An example, yet fresh in memory, was afforded by the Great War when many jurisdictions waived "suitable proficiency" and "constitutional intervals" as to all candidates and also "lawful age" as to Lewises, who were actually in the Service.

Assuming then that the lodge owes a duty to the sons of its members and further that active participation in civic affairs by a lodge, as such, is advisable, what better opportunity have we than active support of the Boy Scout movement?

This has been declared to be the greatest field of endeavor opened to civilization in the past century, and, in this country, one of the most potent of influences available to any Americanization plan. An examination of the Scout oath and law alone will show how closely scouting fits in with the spirit of Masonry: "On my honor I will do my best: 1, To do my duty to God and my country, and obey the Scout law. 2, To help other peon at all times. 3, To keep myself physically strong, mental awake and morally straight." The Scout law may be condense to five words: Honesty, Courage, Kindliness, Loyalty and Service.

A movement which actually brings home to the understanding of boys of twelve to twenty-one years these basic principle of manhood and of citizenship by transmuting the gang-code into the Scout-law unquestionably deserves our active support as individual Masons, if not the forming of Masonic Scout Troop under the wing of our lodges, composed of our sons and led by our brethren.

The suggestions of Brothers Carson and Hugo are interesting and the mentioned subjects of relief commendable, but history would seem to teach that Freemasonry belongs in the van, as a breaker of the way and a layer of bridges for the combatant forces of civilization, rather than in the rear as a ran claimer of the wounded and derelict. Surely, Scouting is one those combating forces.

— F. S. Baker, New York.

* * *


An interesting experiment is about to be tried in the strip of country known until recently as German East Africa. Bra Captain Willis, M. C., a native of Canterbury, New Zealand, and who has had much experience of tobacco planting in South an East Africa, has been appointed commandant of a portion of the conquered territory in East Africa, and is also supervising a scheme for the establishment of a Masonic co-operative settlement there. The territory he proposes the settlement should occupy is the hilly country contiguous to the north end of Lake Nyassa, a "pool" 360 miles long, between thirty and sixty mile wide, and the second deepest lake in the world. The lake is about 1,600 feet above sea-level, and it is proposed to acquire an area extending up to about the 7,000-feet level. From three thousand feet up, the country is as healthy as any in the world. On the lower levels tobacco, hill rice, cotton, and tropical fruit do well; a little higher, tea, coffee, and sub-tropical product grow profusely, whilst the higher levels grow wheat and other cereals, and afford good grazing for cattle. Droughts are unknown; from December to May the rainfall is heavy, October and November being the driest months in the year. The country is prolific; one hundred acres in tobacco will produce twenty-five tons of cured leaf, worth considerably over 1s. per pound on the London market on present rates. Nyassaland tobacco brings the highest price, being the best leaf offered on the market. A the present time, to raise, cure, and put the tobacco in London would cost about sixpence per pound. Tea is a good proposition, a hundred acres of which, on attaining the age of five years would clear about 8 to 10 per acre per annum. The broker in London will readily put in all requisite machinery. Linseed or Irish flax also grows well, and the natives soon become expert in linen fiber manufacture. All fruits and vegetables dwell some on the lower and some on the higher levels.

It is proposed that every settler shall acquire five thousand acres or more of plantation land, the rest on the higher levels for grazing. He can also have an area in the settlement for a residence if desired. Labor is cheap and plentiful, and labor troubles are unknown. The native works for 1s. per week, considering himself well paid at that price. Good burnt bricks are made for 2s. 6d. and 3s. per thousand, and quite a good house can be erected for £100, the woodwork being usually of mahogany. The natives make good artificers and agriculturists, are of a kindly disposition, and also make good servants. Lions and leopards are to be met with, but nature has provided a defense in the way of a thorn bush that no animal will face, and the intention is to "ring-fence" the settlement area with this, an impenetrable defense being assured in two years. The land inside the fence will then be cleaned out, thus freeing the settlement from any trouble on that score. The freehold of the land, it is anticipated, will cost under 1s. per acre.

The settlement is to be governed Masonically; none but Masons are to be admitted, and it will be run on co-operative principles. No outside trades or trading will be permitted, but the lines established by the Rhodesian Farmers' Co-operative Society will, it is suggested, be followed. All products will be sold by the Society on behalf of the individuals, and they will purchase their supplies at net landed cost, at the end of the financial period getting their credit balance, less their proportion of working expenses the trading organization making no profit whatever. The amount of money required by a settler is approximately £1,000. The seaport for the country is Daressalaam. Train is taken from there to Dodoma — a day's journey; and the balance can be completed to New Langenburgh per motor lorry in two days. The country has motor roads made by the military. The present cost of reaching there from New Zealand is about £100 per adult, but a cheaper rate via Colombo is probable.

It is proposed that an advance party of brethren shall first go over, have the land surveyed into the requisite areas, and start planting, and thus get the requisite experience to guide the main body, for whom they will make preparations. It is hoped that the settlement will draw on every profession and craft for its members, so that it will be self-contained. As there will be practically no housework for the women to do, a portion of the government will be vested in them such as education, etc. To provide the necessary machinery they will have a Lodge or Club. It is hoped that the best of educational facilities will be made available, and that the social life of the community will reach a very high plane. Married men are required, and no admixture with the natives will be countenanced. The prestige of the white race has to be maintained; so our blood must remain unadulterated.

Considering the prospects for the future in New Zealand and other countries, and the great uncertainty the coming years hold, the prospects of a comfortable existence with fears for the future practically eliminated is most alluring. Reduced to a few words, in East Africa can be acquired land that will produce anything for a few pence per acre; labor is plentiful and cheap, thus allowing for cheap production; whilst the markets of the world offer the best prices in history for all that can be produced. A world shortage of food threatens; there will be plenty. There will, of course, be hardships to face, but a mere bagatelle alongside of those generally experienced by first settlers. The point of settlement is within three weeks from almost any port in the world, has good motor roads and telegraph lines, it has plenty of good labor, and with its abundant game and fruits an easily obtained food supply is assured. Some brethren in good positions have already signified their intention of settling in this new Masonic colony.

— London Freemason.

* * *


Bro. F. W. Dibble, South Carolina

Composed while meditating upon the Sphinx in front of The House of the Temple, Washington, D. C.

Crouching and half concealed in desert sands,
Half brute, half human, and upon her face
Expression changing with each mood or whim,
Behold the Sphinx! What means this graven form?
In pensive mood I gaze into her eyes
And there reflected see pensivity:
Amused I look — it seems I trace a smile:
Or weighted with the burdening cares of life,
It seems a burden, too, the Sphinx hath borne
And e'en deep grief within her heart of stone.

The voice of ages past comes to my ear:
"This is the symbol of the things of life.
Tho some we see, the more we cannot know.
Well might this form gaze pensively upon
The stretch of desert sands, the Pyramids,
Not far away the Nile; for heath her look
Hath passed mankind in all his various moods.
Graven by one who longed to know the truth
Yet somehow baffled in the life-long quest,
The Sphinx hath seen the folly of mankind

When mankind's effort spent itself for naught—
Its wisdom, when the thoughtful minds of earth
Strove to find out the 'wherefore' of all things—
Its splendor as the great of Egypt passed,
Her royalty in gold and glittering gems,
With numerous courtiers in pageantry
Attended by innumerable slaves;
Her priesthood, offering incantations weird;
Her wise men, learned in esoteric lore—
Its grief, as o'er the fated land there passed
The Angel, carrying out the doom of heaven
When Egypt's firstborn, dying heath God's wrath
Softened the heart of Pharaoh."

Vast crowds passed
Thronging the highway to the Pyramids
When the nobility and royalty
Of Egypt passed into the Great Beyond.
At other times the poor of Egypt crept
Out in the desert, broken in their heart,
And there in shallow graves, dug hastily,
Gave back to earth the body of their dead.
On this broad stretch of earth astrologers
Studied the heavens, trying to find out God,
And learn from Him the mystery of life.

The seasons passed their course, and time rolled by
And still mankind showed folly, wisdom, grief.
The things of now are but the things of then,
And ages have not solved the mystery.

So stands the Sphinx. Part buried in the sands
She is unseen beyond a little scope
Of desert. Hidden in mankind are we,
Beyond the circle of our friends unknown.

A human head above a lion's form
Part human and part brute are we, perhaps
More brute than human: but the intellect,
The soul, the spirit, are the mightier part,
And by these gifts divine may we find God
Who planned the course we must pursue thru life.

Methinks the Sphinx was once a temple where
The priesthood met for ceremonials,
When lower courses came for deeper truths.
Th' initiates' probation being done,
Before the great High Priesthood of the realm
His yearning mind sought esoteric Light
Methinks he learnt that Egypt's Pyramids,
Her temples and her monuments but signs
And symbols to direct his mind to God.
Methinks he learned to know the great I AM,
Veiled in such quaint and mystic symbolisms;
Methinks that in the depths beneath the Sphinx
There is a perfect cubic altar raised,
At which they offered worship unto God,
And on the which, unmarred by wasting Time,
Triangles may be traced, and stamped in gold
In bold relief, the mystic name of God.

Are we not temples thus? Do not our hearts
Yearn to find out the deeper things of God?
Doth not some soft, pulsating motive course
In every act to make us think of God?
Yea! and our heart contains a secret shrine
Erected for the worship of the Lord,
And there His name, ineffable, sublime,
Is worshipped; and tho sin may mar our lives
We often seek the God within our hearts,
Bemoan our faults, and seek new strength from Him.
And when at last, before relentless Death,
We quail and quiver, and our hearts grow still,
Somehow we feel the God-in-us will save
Th' immortal spark that on His altar glows
Within our dying hearts, and usher us
Into the presence of the truth on high.